Ho chi minh vietnamese communist revolutionary leader

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Ho Chi Minh: Vietnamese communist revolutionary leader. Stepped down from office in 1965 due to health problems. Died in 1969. After the fall of Saigon, it was renamed Ho Chi Minh City. Domino theory: The idea that political revolutions in one country will cause similar revolutions in neighboring countries, akin to only one domino being necessary to topple over a whole chain of dominos. Typically associated with the spread of communism, although a variant associated with spreading democracy gained currency during the 2003 Iraq War. Lyndon B. Johnson: Thirty-sixth President. Senate Majority Leader 1955–1961. Vice President 1961–1963. Assumed the presidency upon the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Oversaw the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965, as well as a series of landmark domestic legislation known as the Great Society. Escalated the Vietnam War. Declined to run for reelection in 1968. A domestic policy maestro but a foreign policy. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: An August 1964 Congressional resolution authorizing the president to wage war in Vietnam without a formal declaration of war. Vietnam War: Also called the Second Indochina War. Direct American involvement in Vietnam began in 1955 and ended on April 30, 1975, with the Fall of Saigon. The war polarized American society. It killed more than 58,000 Americans and over 2 million Vietnamese. See: domino theory, Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Tet Offensive, War Powers Act. Operation Rolling Thunder: A bombing campaign conducted by the U.S. Air Force against North Vietnam. Run from March 1965 to November 1968, and dropped more bombs on North Vietnam than had been used by the United States throughout World War II. Failed to achieve its aims. Viet Cong: Also known as ‘V-C’ or ‘Charlie.’ The Viet Cong were the military wing of the National Liberation Front, a communist nationalist group in South Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh Trail: U.S. name for a logistical network that connected North and South Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia. Supported the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army. Tet Offensive: A surprise January 1968 offensive by the Viet Cong. While U.S. and South Vietnamese forces prevailed, it permanently undermined American public opinion in the war. Contributed to Johnson’s decision to not run for reelection in 1968. Hard Hat Riot: A spontaneous counter-protest in New York City in 1970. About 200 construction workers attacked 1,000 students protesting the Vietnam War and the Kent State shootings. Embodied a growing social backlash to the 1960s youth culture. Pentagon Papers: Secret documents regarding the Vietnam War leaked to The New York Times by analyst Daniel Ellsberg. They revealed that Congress had been lied to for many years about the war, and that the United States had acted contrary to its publicly stated goals. Henry Kissinger: National Security Advisor 1969–1975. Secretary of State 1973–1977. A foreign policy advisor for Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. Advocated détenteand realpolitik, or international relations, based on self-interest rather than ideology or morality.

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