If all these stars align then a person will commit a

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*if all these stars align then a person will commit a crime* 2004 Revision: Control Balance DesirabilityPotential for long term changes to result in ones changesExtent to which they need to be engaged with their victim2018-02-01Critical Perspectives on Youth CrimeDifferential coercion theory – Colvin (2000)-Integrates several existing theoretical perspectives-Emphasizes 2 dimensions of control:oCoercion personal or impersonal force that compels individuals to act in a certain wayoThe consistency with which coercion is delivered -2 types of coercion:oDirect coercion control developing from a tangible interpersonal relationship (eg family)oIndirect coercion control emerging from forces beyond an individuals control (eg. economy, race, gender) -Type of environment oErratic coerciveErratic but punitive coercion individuals feel like they lack control over outcomesLikely to engage in early crime oConsistent coercive
Characterized by high degree of coercion applied often highly punitive environment Unlikely to produce criminal behaviour because of constant monitoringUnlikely to produce pro-social behaviour can lead to mental illnesses If coercion lessens over time, likely to lead to violenceoErratic, non-coercive leads to low self-control; produces majority of offenders Characterized by leniency or weak control Controllers (parents) seem to be indifferent/distant from childoAny control applied is applied erraticallyoConsistent non-coercive Unlikely to lead to criminal behaviourControl applied in firm but fair manner More likely to lead to pro-social behaviours Situational Action Theory – Wilkstrom (2006,2012)-Focus on the personal and environmental factors that influence people to engage in crimeoCrime can best be understood as moral actions that are affected by moral rules Rules in some situations are different than other situations -Actions result from perceptions of action alternativesthe different ways people actin a given situation, setting boundaries for choices that can be madeoPerceptions of alternatives guided by morality decisions formed into automatic choice processing (moral habits) oWhether those who consider deviant action alternatives will engage in crime depends on:Self-control; fear of sanctions; environments Critical perspectives on youth crime Critical criminology -An approach to studying crime that attempts to understand and alter inequality, marginalization, and social exclusion activist approach -Focuses on how the CJS contributes to structural inequality by further marginalizing young people Critiquing the justice system -Mainstream critiques aim to improve the functioning and efficiency of the existing youth justice system oCritical criminologists look for alternatives to current system Eg. restorative justice Youth Restorative Justice Project (YRAP) -Critical criminologists critique the traditional justice system by:
oExamining systemic issues of power and justice who has it?

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