Fakhr al D � n al R ā z � 11491210 had strong interests in astrology philosophy

Fakhr al d ? n al r ā z ? 11491210 had strong

This preview shows page 100 - 102 out of 627 pages.

much wider understanding of the term “mathematical” in the tenth century than it is understood today. Fakhr al-D ī n al-R ā z ī (1149–1210) had strong interests in astrology, philosophy, and other sciences. He addressed primarily courtly circles. To one of the now Turkic rulers of Khurasan, the Khw ā razmsh ā h Al ā ± al-D ī n Tekesh (r. 1172–1200), he dedicated his encyclopedic survey of 40–60 disciplines called Jaw ā mi al- ul ū m (Collection of the Sciences) in Arabic (40) and ³ ad ā ± iq al-anw ā r f ī ± aq ā ± iq al-asr ā r (The Gardens of Lights, on the Truths of Secrets) in Persian (60). The mathematical sciences in these two encyclopedias comprised the four principal disciplines and a number of branch sciences like various calculation systems (Indian arithmetic, calculating with ± ngers, sexagesimal system, etc.), algebra, magic squares, surveying, ilm al-athq ā l , optics, burning mirrors, and other branches. Al-R ā z ī was thus one of the main religious scholars who contributed to a stable dispersion of mathe- matical and philosophical knowledge in Arabic through his many students who ² ocked to him and then opened their own teaching circles, such as those in northern Iraq or Syria. 14 Be aware, however, of the misleading modernization of terms like ilm al-nuj ū m , ilm al-athq ā l, and ilm al- ± iyal by Zonta replaced here by my own translations. S. Brentjes
95 In the lifetime of al-R ā z ī and his students, a major reorganization of the system of disciplinary knowledge seems to have taken place in Islamic societies from Central Asia and India that, with only a short delay, also spread to the Maghrib. The former triangle of religious sciences, ancient sciences, and philological sciences was rearranged as the traditional sciences, the rational sciences, and the mathematical sciences (Brentjes 2008a ). These changes seem to have been closely connected with the new teaching possibilities available outside the courtly sphere and the private household which arose in the new teaching institutes. Madrasa teachers, for instance, appeared now as authors of clas- siF cations of knowledge. One of them was Mu ± ammad b. Ibr ā h ī m b. al-Akf ā n ī (1283–1348) from Sinjar, who at the same time was a successful physician in Cairo – a typical combination in the Mamluk period. His Irsh ā d al-q ā± id il ā asn ā al-maq ā± id (Guidance of the One Who Aspires to the Most Shining Goals) is a veritable guidebook through the literature for a beginner, a student who had reached some middle level in his training, and a mature student. It presents for each of them a list of books to read for studying any of the disciplines that the author included in his system of knowledge. Altogether, Ibn al-Akf ā n ī presents 600 book titles for 60 sciences. The classiF cation of the mathematical sciences standard among the philosophers and physicians of the classical period as principal and branch disciplines, while macerated, still lends order to the pre- sentation. The mathematical sciences which come after the natural sciences begin with geometry (Witkam 1989 , pp. 45–53), which in turn is followed by

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture