May 1915 - Sinking of Lusitania. Was sunk by a submarine. It was a passenger liner. British Government was secretly shipping weapons. Captain William Turner knew about the weapons. Once the ship got close to ireland he was to increase the speed and sail lusitania in zigzag pattern to avoid aim. Turner survives the sinking of the ship. Claimed he did the complete opposite. Major Kari Zweiger fired one shot and hit Lusitania. Germany will sign the Lusitania pledge in which Germany promises not to attack any civilian liners in 1915.In 1916 signs another pledge, the Sussex Pledge, in which Germany promises not to attack any merchant vessels as well. Wilson loses his first wife. Died of kidney disease. Woodrow Wilson meets Edith Galt Wilson. She was very intelligent, strong willed. They married in december 1915. Becomes one of the finest first ladie10/02Wilson’s motto - “He kept us out of war”8
Thursday, September 13, 2018January 1917 - The turn up winter - Germans starved. Flour substituted with saw dust to bake bread. Feb 1917 - Zimmermann Telegram - was supposed to directed to Mexico. Intercepted by the British. Germany is telling Mexico to declare war on the US and keep it away from the war in europe. Germany promises if they won the war they will come over to defeat americans and help retrieve lands they lost to americans (Arizona, new mexico, texas, california, nevada)March 1917 - US and Germany breaks offdiplomatic relations. Germany goes offApril 2, 1917 - Wilson asked for declaration of war and was given. Was not a unanimous decision. US and WarHyper-Americanism - Many people went to extremes to prove their patriotism. During this time, if you were in school it was illegal to teach german. All major orchestras are not allowed to play classic musics from germany, austria, and hungary. Anti-war movement and American Responsea.Sedition Act - can be fined and or imprisoned anyone who writes or speaks out against the government and its actions. a.Case of Charles Schenck - distributing pamphlets, draft went against the thirteenth amendment (abolishing slavery) Gets arrested and appeals it. Supreme Court upholds his conviction and considers it disruptedb.“The Masses” - a very left wing magazine coming out of NY city (Max Eastman) - antiwar. Wrote articles and drawings. Community of Public Information, George Creel, connected to attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer. All publication goes through their committee and filters all antiwars. Sends people to court. b. Espionage act - will put you in prison with any effort to be involved in the war. a.International workers of the world - Bill Haywood - Open shop union vs. Closed Shop Union. - Allows any gender or race vs. only specific type can join. Over 125 leaders of IWW were arrested and put on trial for violating espionage act. All of them got convicted for violating the act. Those who are immigrants got immediately deported. Others were sent 5-10 years in the prison.