When arriving at a total score the categories

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When arriving at a total score, the categories assigned to the negative statements by the respondents should be scored by reversing the scale.
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Semantic Differential Scale The semantic differential is a seven-point rating scale with end points associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning. SEARS IS: Powerful --:--:--:--:-X-:--:--: Weak Unreliable --:--:--:--:--:-X-:--: Reliable Modern --:--:--:--:--:--:-X-: Old-fashioned The negative adjective or phrase sometimes appears at the left side of the scale and sometimes at the right. This controls the tendency of some respondents, particularly those with very positive or very negative attitudes, to mark the right- or left-hand sides without reading the labels. Individual items on a semantic differential scale may be scored on either a -3 to +3 or a 1 to 7 scale.
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A Semantic Differential Scale for Measuring Self- Concepts, Person Concepts, and Product Concepts 1) Rugged :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Delicate 2) Excitable :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Calm 3) Uncomfortable :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Comfortable 4) Dominating :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Submissive 5) Thrifty :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Indulgent 6) Pleasant :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Unpleasant 7) Contemporary :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Obsolete 8) Organized :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Unorganized 9) Rational :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Emotional 10) Youthful :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Mature 11) Formal :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Informal 12) Orthodox :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Liberal 13) Complex :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Simple 14) Colorless :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Colorful 15) Modest :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Vain
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Stapel Scale The Stapel scale is a unipolar rating scale with ten categories numbered from -5 to +5, without a neutral point (zero). This scale is usually presented vertically. SEARS +5 +5 +4 +4 +3 +3 +2 +2X +1 +1 HIGH QUALITY POOR SERVICE -1 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 -4X -4 -5 -5 The data obtained by using a Stapel scale can be analyzed in the same way as semantic differential data.
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Scale Basic Characteristics Examples Advantages Disadvantages Continuous Rating Scale Place a mark on a continuous line Reaction to TV commercials Easy to construct Scoring can be cumbersome unless computerized Itemized Rating Scales Likert Scale Degrees of agreement on a 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) scale Measurement of attitudes Easy to construct, administer, and understand More time- consuming Semantic Differential Seven - point scale with bipolar labels Brand, product, and company images Versatile Controversy as to whether the data are interval Stapel Scale Unipolar ten - point scale, - 5 to +5, without a neutral point (zero) Measurement of attitudes and images Easy to construct, administer over telephone Confusing and difficult to apply Table 9.1 Basic Noncomparative Scales
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Summary of Itemized Scale Decisions Table 9.2 1)
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