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1 the is the earths physical realm that includes

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1. The ___________________________ is the Earth’s physical realm that includes water in all its physical states: gas, liquid and solid. 2. The ocean and glaciers hold the majority of the water in the hydrosphere. (True / False) 3. The atmosphere holds a small fraction (less than 1%) of the available water within the hydrosphere. (True / False) 4. The hydrologic cycle is an important system between the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Briefly describe how this system works between these two realms. 5. For each of the phase changes of water, determine whether latent heat is released or absorbed and if this cools or warms the atmosphere. Phase Change Latent Heat Atmosphere cools or warms? Condensation Deposition Evaporation Freezing Melting Sublimation 6. ________________________________ is the amount of water vapor actually found within a sample of air and ______________________________ is the amount of water vapor the sample of air can hold at the current temperature. 7. Describe the relationship between specific humidity and latitude. Where is the specific humidity greatest? Where is the specific humidity smallest? Why? 8. Describe the relationship between saturation specific humidity and air temperature.
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9. The dew point temperature is the temperature at which saturation of air will occur. (True / False) 10. What is relative humidity? Why is relative humidity not an accurate way to measure atmospheric moisture? 11. If air temperature increases while water vapor content remains unchanged, the relative humidity ______________________________. 12. Over the course of an average day, when do we find the highest relative humidity? Why? 13. When air is considered to be saturated, list three (3) things that happen when the air is completely filled with water vapor. 14. When air is cooled beyond its dew point temperature, ____________________ begins around nuclei that could eventually create clouds. 15. The adiabatic process shows how air parcels warm/cool as a result of changes in atmospheric pressure. (True / False) 16. When air begins to rise through the atmosphere, if it is unsaturated, it follows the ________________________ lapse rate. Eventually, this air reaches the _______________________________________ where it becomes saturated and its relative humidity is 100%. After this point, the air parcel rises according to the __________________________________ lapse rate. All the while, latent heat is ___________________________ and clouds begin to form. 17. List four (4) ways that air parcels are forcibly lifted through the atmosphere. In all cases, what is the ultimate result of this lifted air? 18. Stable air ___________________ through the atmosphere leading to adiabatic warming. This leads to sunny skies and relatively warm temperatures. 19. Why does unstable air lead to cloud formation and precipitation?
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20. Cloud droplets begin to form when lifted air becomes saturated and condensation begins to occur around suspended particles in the atmosphere. (True / False) 21. What are the two types of cloud condensation nuclei? Briefly describe the differences between them and the appearance of the clouds they each creates.
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