50%(2)1 out of 2 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 116 - 119 out of 215 pages.
Chapter 30 - The War to End WarsI. War by Act of Germany1.On January 22, 1917, Woodrow Wilson made one final, attempt toavert war, delivering a moving address that correctly declared only a“peace without victory” (beating Germany withoutembarrassing them) would be lasting. oGermany responded by shocking the world, announcing that it wouldbreak the Sussex pledge and return to unrestricted submarine warfare,which meant that its U-boats would now be firing on armed and unarmedships in the war zone.2.Wilson asked Congress for the authority to arm merchant ships, but a band of Midwestern senators tried to block this measure.3.Then, the Zimmerman note was intercepted and published on March 1, 1917. oWritten by German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman, it secretlyproposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico. It proposed that if
Mexico fought against the U.S. and the Central Powers won, Mexico couldrecover Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona from the U.S.4.The Germans also began to make good on their threats, sinkingnumerous ships. Meanwhile, in Russia, a revolution toppled the tsaristregime.5.On April 2, 1917, President Wilson asked Congress to declare war,which it did four days later; Wilson had lost his gamble at staying outof the war.II. Wilsonian Idealism Enthroned1.Many people still didn’t want to enter into war, for Americahad prided itself in isolationism for decades, and now, Wilson wasentangling America in a distant war. oSix senators and 50 representatives, including the first Congresswoman, Jeanette Ranking, voted against war.2.To gain enthusiasm for the war, Wilson came up with the idea ofAmerica entering the war to “make the world safe fordemocracy.” oThis idealistic motto worked brilliantly, but with the new Americanzeal came the loss of Wilson’s earlier motto, “peacewithout victory.”III. Wilson’s Fourteen Potent Points1.On January 8, 1917, Wilson delivered his Fourteen Points Address to Congress.2.The Fourteen Points were a set of idealistic goals for peace. The main points were… oNo more secret treaties.oFreedom of the seas was to be maintained.oA removal of economic barriers among nations.oReduction of armament burdens.oAdjustment of colonial claims in the interests of natives and colonizers.o“Self-determination,” or independence for oppressed minority groups who’d choose their governmentoA League of Nations, an international organization that would keep the peace and settle world disputes.IV. Creel Manipulates Minds1.The Committee on Public Information, headed by George Creel, wascreated to “sell” the war to those people who were againstit or to just gain support for it. oThe Creel organization sent out an army of 75,000 men to deliverspeeches in favor of the war, showered millions of pamphlets containingthe most potent “Wilsonisms” upon the world, splashed
posters and billboards that had emotional appeals, and showedanti-German movies like The Kaiser and The Beast of Berlin.