Dif moderate obj 111c msc understanding not apa goal

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DIF: Moderate OBJ: 11.1c MSC: Understanding NOT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 4, Communication 2. a. Describe the actor/observer bias. b. Give one reason why this effect occurs. c. Give one real-world example of the actor/observer bias. ANS: Suggested answer: A. The actor/observer bias refers to two tendencies: when we are the actor, we explain behaviors with situational attributions; when we are the observer, we interpret the same behavior with personal attributions. B. One reason for this difference is that we know more about the situations that we are involved in (situations are salient when we are making attributions for our own behavior; the person is salient when we are making attributions for another individual). C. Examples will vary. DIF: Moderate OBJ: 11.1c MSC: Applying NOT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 4, Communication 3. a. Explain the relationship among a stereotype, prejudice, and discrimination by including a description of each key term. b. Provide a real-world example of a stereotype, prejudice, and discrimination.
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ANS: Suggested answer: A. Stereotypes are mental shortcuts that allow for easy, fast processing of social information. Stereotypes can be positive, neutral, or negative. Prejudice involves negative feelings, opinions, and beliefs that are associated with a stereotype. Discrimination is the inappropriate and unjustified treatment of people as a result of prejudice. B. Examples will vary. DIF: Easy OBJ: 11.1d MSC: Applying NOT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 4, Communication 4. a. Describe Sherif’s summer camp study. b. What did Sherif do to create hostility between the two groups? c. How did Sherif reduce this hostility? d. Provide an example of how this study could apply to the real world. ANS: Suggested answer: A. Sherif arranged for 22 well-adjusted and intelligent white fifth-grade boys from Oklahoma City to attend a summer camp at a lake. The boys did not know one another. Before arriving at camp, they were randomly divided into two groups, the Eagles and the Rattlers. B. The next week, over a 4-day period, the groups were pitted against one another in a competition to create hostility. C. Sherif reasoned that if competition led to hostility, then cooperation should reduce hostility. The experimenters created situations in which members of both groups had to cooperate to achieve necessary goals. After a series of tasks that required cooperation, the walls between the two sides broke down. The boys became friends across the groups. Among strangers, competition and isolation created enemies. D. Examples will vary. DIF: Moderate OBJ: 11.1d MSC: Applying NOT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 4, Communication 5. a. Explain what implicit and explicit attitudes are. b. Describe one way to measure implicit attitudes. ANS: Suggested answer: A. An explicit attitude is an attitude that a person is consciously aware of and can report. An implicit attitude is an attitude that influences a person’s feelings and behavior at an unconscious level.
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B. To assess implicit attitudes, researchers use indirect means. One method
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