For men over the age of fifty it is recommended that PSA testing be performed

For men over the age of fifty it is recommended that

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For men over the age of fifty, it is recommended that PSA testing be performed yearly. Some organizations however begin testing high-risk patients in their forties if the male has a first degree relative with prostate cancer (NCI, 2017). Reliability and Validity of PSA The blood test for PSA is measured on a scale of ng/ml. A normal result is considered lower than 4.0 ng/ml. The higher the PSA, the higher likelihood of the presence of prostate cancer. For example, 4-10 ng/ml is mildly high, 10-20 ng/ml is moderately high, and >20 ng/ml is highly elevated (Ahmad, Ghafar, & Khan, 2017). When a male has a PSA drawn and the level is above 4.0 ng/ml the provider usually orders a repeat serum PSA and if it is still high, a prostate biopsy
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will be ordered (NCI, 2017); However, depending on race, family history, or age a biopsy may be performed if the PSA is between 2.5-3.0 ng/ml (American Cancer Society, 2016). The validity of the PSA has been proven effective in detecting prostate cancer and monitoring the effects of cancer treatment of the prostate (Ahmad et al., 2017). The reliability of the PSA has mixed reviews. The test can cause false-positives and false-negatives. It has been shown to raise controversy when a provider solely relies on the PSA to test for prostate cancer (Lau, Guo, Viczko, & Naugler, 2014).
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