They become specialized for one or more functions

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arise during the development of an animal from a single-celled zygote... they become specialized for one or more functions during the development process many cells also migrate to new positions, forming associations with other cell types animal tissues develop from groups of cells with a common structure and function cell junctions hold the cells together in most cases the cells make many connections to extracellular matrix organs develop from two or more tissues that perform a complex task that requires the integrated functioning of those tissues organ systems develop from several organs working together (see table 40.1) Organ Systems (self-study; homework: review table 40.1)
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Animal Form and Function 8 TISSUE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION EPITHELIAL TISSUE sheets of tightly packed cells that form protective layers barriers against mechanical injury, microbes, fluid loss epithelial tissues have 1 free surface exposed to air or fluid... the other (opposite) surface is attached to ECM (e.g. “basement membrane”=”basal lamina” ) some are specialized for absorption or secretion (e.g. “ mucous membranes ” of digestive and respiratory tracts) there are two basic types of epithelial tissues (see next page)... covering and lining epithelia cover the body and line organs and body cavities glandular epithelia makes and secretes various products two structural characteristics are used when naming epithelial tissues (see fig. 40.5 below)... the number of cell layers (1 = “simple” , >1 = “stratified” ) the cross-sectional shape of the cells at the apical surface (flattened = “squamous” , square = “cuboidal” , upright rectangular = “columnar” ) fig. 40.5 (part 1) Epithelial tissue.
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Animal Form and Function 9 Covering & Lining Epithelium (self-study; homework: the structure of covering and lining epithelium closely matches its function... complete the table below using the text, noting one or two example locations for each type of covering and lining epithelium, except where already given) Type Comments about Structure and Function Example Locations simple squamous thin and leaky; allows rapid diffusion of solubilized gases lining of capillaries alveoli of the lungs simple cuboidal lots of cytoplasm for the secretion and absorption of substances simple columnar stratified squamous stratified columnar relatively rare; roles in protection and secretion parts of the pharynx and epiglottis pseudostratified columnar Glandular Epithelium some “glands” are actually single cells other glands are complex multicellular structures derived from epithelium and connected to it exocrine glands... e.g. mammary glands, sebacious glands, sweat glands endocrine glands... e.g. adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries and testes, heart, and many others
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Animal Form and Function 10 CONNECTIVE TISSUE ubiquitous; forms basic support structure of body functions: bind, support, strengthen provide attachment sites protect and insulate organs connective tissues are characterized by a
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