Pods with round holes• Helicoverpafeeding on pods1. , 2. , 3. 4. Favourable conditions:Warm weather conditions followed by light rains and dry spells are favourable for multiplication.Natural enemies of gram pod borer:Parasitoids: Trichogramma spp., Tetrastichus spp., Chelonus spp., Telenomus spp., Braconspp., Ichneumon spp., Carcelia spp., Campoletis sp etc.Predators: Lacewing, ladybird beetle, spider, red ant, dragonfly, robber fly, reduviid bug, praying mantis, black drongo, common mynah, big-eyed bug (Geocoris sp), earwig, ground beetle, pentatomid bug(Eocanthecona furcellata)etc.*For management refer to page numbers 16,172) Spotted pod borer:It is a polyphagous pest, infesting gram, lablab, safflower, chillies, groundnut, tobacco, cotton etc.Egg: Eggs are laid on the under surface of leaves, terminal shoots and flower buds. The freshly laid eggs are milky white in colour and oval in outline, dorsoventraly flattened and glued to the surface.Larva:Larvae are greenish white with brown head. Larval period is 15-20 days Pupa: Pupation takes place in dry leaves and debrisAdult: Adults have brown forewings and white hind wings
22AESA based IPM – RedgramLife cycle:Damage symptoms: Bore holes on the buds, flowers or pods• Infested pods and flowers are webbed together• Damage symptoms of spotted pod borer 1. 2 3. 4 Natural enemies of spotted pod borer: Parasitoids: Trichogramma spp., Tetrastichus spp., Chelonus spp., Telenomus spp, Braconspp. etc.Predators:Lacewing, ladybird beetle, spider, red ant, dragon fly, robber fly, reduviid bug, praying mantis etc.*For management refer to page numbers 16,183) Pod fly:It is widely distributed in India and causes major economic losses in northern parts of India causing significant losses especially in long duration varieties. This pest alone accounts for 70-80% of the total pod damage by pod borer complex. The infected seeds do not germinate.Biology:Egg: The adult female oviposits in the tender pods. Eggs measure about 0.97 mm in length and 0.15 mm in breadth.Larva: The freshly eclosed maggots are transparent, Mature larvae are white and up to about 3.5 mm long.Pupa:Pupal cases are orange-brown, about 3 mm long, with a pair of closely spaced anterior spiracles projecting forward, and a pair of prominently projecting posterior spiracles on tubercles that are joined basally.