In the presence of infection urinary nitrate is

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IN THE PRESENCE OF INFECTION URINARY NITRATE IS CONVERTED TO NITRITE WHICH CAN BE DETECTED IN URINE. A POSITIVE NITRITE TEST INDICATES INFECTION WITH NITRITE PRODUCING BACTERIA. 229
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LEUCOCYTE ESTERASE TEST:- A POSITIVE TEST IS SEEN IN PRESENCE OF WBC'S IN URINE AND SUGGESTIVE OF PYURIA. A POSITIVE LEUCOCYTE ESTERASE TEST RESULTS FROM THE PRESENCE OF WBC. A NEGATIVE LEUCOCYTE ESTERASE TEST INDICATES THAT AN INFECTION IS UNLIKELY AND THAT WITHOUT ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION URINE CULTURE NEED NOT BE. 230
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THE MOST COMMON INFECTIOUS AGENT ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC PYELONEPHRITIS IS - A) PROTEUS VULGARIS B) KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIA C) STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS D) ESCHERICHIA COLI 231
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AGENTS COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC PYELONEPHRITIS :- E.COLI STREPTOCOCUS FOECALIS PROTEUS SPECIES PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES 232
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THE MOST COMMON INFECTIOUS AGENT ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC PYELONEPHRITIS IS - A) PROTEUS VULGARIS B) KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIA C) STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS D) ESCHERICHIA COLI ANS IS ‘D’ I.E., E.COLI [REF. HARRISON 18"‘/EP.2388; BAILEY & LOVE 24,H/E P. 1325 & 23RD/E, P. 1192)] 233
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MAXIMUM URINARY CATHETER INDUCED INFECTION- A) E.COLI (NEET/DNB PATTERN) B) PSEUDOMONAS C) STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS D) PROTEUS 234
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CATHETER ASSOCIATED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS REPRESENT THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION. MOST COMMON ORGANISM CAUSING CATHETER ASSOCIATED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS ARE E.COLI. BACTERIURIA IN PATIENTS WITH SHORT TERM CATHETERS IS USUALLY CAUSED BY A SINGLE ORGANISM. E. COLI IS THE MOST FREQUENT SPECIES ISOLATED. 235
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OTHER COMMON BACTERIAS THAT ARE ASSOCIATED WITH URINARY CATHETER ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS ARE:- KLEBSIELLA SERRATIA CITROBACTER ENTEROBACTER PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA FUNGURIA (MOSTLY CANDIURIA IS REPORTED IN 3-32% OF PATIENTS) 236
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MAXIMUM URINARY CATHETER INDUCED INFECTION- A) E.COLI (NEET/DNB PATTERN) B) PSEUDOMONAS C) STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS D) PROTEUS ANS. IS ‘A’ I.E., E.COLI [REF. HARRISON 18'H/EP. 2388, 2389] 237
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STERILE PYURIA IS CHARACTERISTICALLY SEEN IN (AI-11) A) RENAL TUBERCULOSIS B) CHRONIC HYDRONEPHROSIS C) WILM’S TUMOR D) NEUROBLASTOMA 238
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PYURIA:- PYURIA REFERS TO HAVING WHITE BLOOD CELLS OR PUS IN THE URINE. BY FAR THE MOST COMMON CAUSE OF WHITE BLOOD CELLS IN THE URINE IS DUE TO AN INFECTION OF THE URINARY TRACT. IN THESE CASES PYURIA IS GENERALLY ACCOMPANIED BY BACTERIURIA IN THE URINE. BUT SOMETIMES PYURIA MAY OCCUR IN THE ABSENCE OF BACTERIURIA. THIS IS CALLED “STERILE PYURIA”. 239
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SOME INFLAMMATORY LESIONS OF THE KIDNEY MAY ALSO CAUSE STERILE PYURIA : - - LYPUS NEPHRITIS - POLYARTERITIS NODOSA - ANALGESIC NEPHROPATHY - GLOMERULONEPHRITIS - LEAD NEPHROPATHY - SECONDARY SYPHILIA 240
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URINARY TRACT INFECTION WITH ATYPICAL BACTERIAS ARE COMMON CAUSES OF STERILE PYURIA.
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