This attack was driven back with heavy loss in spite

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This attack was driven back with heavy loss, in spite of an American shortage of ammunition. During the attack the British left wing suffered from the fire of Americans in the town of Charlestown and the town was set ablaze. The attacks should have been preceded by a bombardment from the field artillery but it was found that the 6 pounder guns had been supplied with 12 pounder balls. A second attack was launched along the length of the American entrenchments and was again driven back with heavy loss. A final attack was made, concentrating on the redoubt and centre of the American position. The American ammunition was all but exhausted and this final assault carried the redoubt, forcing the Americans The British took over the Bunker and Breed’s Hill positions and fortified them, holding them until they evacuated Boston at the end of the year. The battle was the first action for the Continental Army and showed how much work there was to be done in molding an effective army. While most of the soldiers in the entrenched works fought tenaciously, the intended reinforcements on Bunker Hill refused to advance to the support of their comrades and there was the greatest confusion between the officers as to precedence. The battle had a number of lessons for the British. The senior officers had little idea how to conduct a battle with any degree of sophistication. Howe learnt his mistake in making a frontal assault. At every subsequent battle, where possible he carried out flanking assaults. The British troops were undisciplined and disorganized. The guns for which the wrong ammunition was provided were almost certainly battalion weapons
Appendix C HIS/115 Version 3 6 to retreat and leave the peninsula. They were not vigorously pursued.” The Battle of Bunker Hill 1775. (2012). Retrieved from manned by foot rather than Royal Artillery. For both sides Bunker Hill was the start of a journey in military education. Quebec According to "The Battle Of Quebec 1775" (2012), “While General Washington with the Continental Army was blockading Boston, Montgomery led an attack up the Lake Champlain route into Canada while Arnold took his force across country through Maine. The purpose of the invasion of Canada was in part to bring the Canadian population into the war on the American side. Fort St John and Montreal were captured by the Americans. In late October 1775 Arnold arrived on Point Levis across the St Lawrence from Quebec, having lost a substantial part of his force on the punishing journey from New England. Maclean, hearing of Arnold’s arrival, force marched his recruits from Sorel to Quebec, being joined later by Carleton. On 13th November 1775 Arnold took his force across the St Lawrence, climbed onto the Plains of Abraham and summoned the garrison to surrender or come out and fight. The garrison did neither. Arnold launched a night attack that was beaten back. On 31st December 1775, with the addition of Montgomery’s troops, Arnold launched night attacks at either end of the city in a snowstorm. The garrison alerted by premature feint attacks on other parts of the city perimeter. Montgomery’s assault was repelled with heavy grapeshot and Montgomery was killed. Arnold’s attack penetrated the city wall but he was wounded. Maclean arrived from dealing with Montgomery’s assault and led the counter attack. The American troops who had penetrated the walls were captured and the assault was driven off. Casualties: British and Canadian losses were 20. The American losses were around 500.” Following the battle the Americans withdrew from Canada and no further serious attempt to bring the Canadian population into the war on the American side was made.

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