a. Maxillary sinus infection b. Otitis media c. Acute pharyngitis d. Epistaxis Correct answer: A Sinusitis can cause pressure from mucus and purulent drainage buildup to affect nearby anatomical structures; in this patient's case, the maxilla. Significant pain and discomfort are often the result.
Etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment Decreased humidity, excessive nose blowing, allergy with inflammation, blood thinners, and nose picking Overuse of nasal spray, street drug use (particularly “snorting”), and tumor Initial treatment: Sit forward and apply direct pressure by pinching the soft portion of the nose for 10 to 15 minutes. Apply cold compresses or ice. Cauterize the bleeding vessels, or solidly pack the nose, or insert a small balloon device. Epistaxis. . . AKA nosebleed
Inflammation of the pharynx from virus, bacteria, or fungus Etiology and pathophysiology Acute follicular pharyngitis (“strep throat”) Laryngitis : inflammation of the larynx with diminished voice or hoarseness Signs, symptoms, and diagnosis – usually lasts 3-10 days Dry, "scratchy" feeling in the back of the throat, mild fever, headache, and malaise Dysphagia with greater discomfort swallowing saliva than food Throat culture to confirm/rule out streptococcal infection Pharyngitis . . . AKA sore throat
Signs and symptoms Acute tonsillitis more frequent in young children S/S: high fever, sore throat, general malaise, ear pain, chills Chronic tonsillitis Less dramatic than acute, but frequent colds common Treatment and nursing management Throat culture done before treatment to check for the presence of Streptococcus, which can cause rheumatic fever or glomerulonephritis if not treated promptly Surgery if more than 7 episodes of tonsillitis/yr Tonsillitis
Postoperative care Observe for hemorrhage FREQUENT SWALLOWING Ice collar Side lying while drowsy or semi-fowlers when fully awake Side-lying for young children smaller airway and inability to manage secretions as well Postoperative diet (SOFT DIET) Cold/warm things and gelatin (without red coloring) progressing to semisolid foods for 24rs. No straws because sucking may cause bleeding Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy
Can be from injury to larynx or from food Universal sign of choking? In the unconscious adult or child over 1 year, most common cause of airway obstruction is the tongue Abdominal thrusts aka Heimlich maneuver Obstruction and Trauma
Snoring is common with this condition Breathing stops for >10 seconds until person reflexively gasps from lack of air The abrupt intake of air causes the person to awaken Will frequently have fatigue during day d/t frequent awakening and/or morning headaches
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- Fall '19
- Common cold, cancer of the larynx, Nasopharyngitis