We simply need to know more Once the child has the echoic function they must be

We simply need to know more once the child has the

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and echoic responding may result in a kind of “vocal-verbal imitation” (See Ross & Greer, 2003). We simply need to know more. Once the child has the echoic function, they must be taught to use the form (i.e., butterfly ) in both a tact or mand function depending on how the teacher arranges motivational conditions and reinforcers (Greer, 1987, 1994a). That is the two functions are taught for the same form. Our basic procedures teach echoic-to-mand or echoic-to-tact as separate operants. Thus, forms are identified that have high probability of functioning as mands for a particular student and others are relegated to tact functions. We arrange those in tandem relations such that the emission of independent of echoic tacts results in praise or generalized reinforcement and the opportunity to mand . Mand items are first in view and then faded out of view. Thus, we teach in a scientifically identified context. Applied experimental research devoted to the induction of echoics has led to first instances of functional speech with children for whom other tactics from both early operant research for individuals who could not speak (Lovaas, 1977) was not effective. Moreover, we found that some students would not speak even with the verbal behavior procedures that we developed in the early research (Sundberg et al, 1996; Williams & Greer, 1989). Building on the echoic-mand procedure Ross (1998) (Ross & Greer, 2002) identified that rapid generalized imitation presentations under deprivations led to the induction of vocal verbal behavior for several children one whom was 9 years of age. Tsiouri & Greer, (2003) replicated Ross’ findings and extended the procedure to include the tact and establishing operations for the tact. These latter procedures expanded the numbers of children that we could teach actual speech instead of using topographical substitutes. Sundberg, Michael, Partington, and Sundberg (1996) introduced still another procedure that acted to induce echoic responding by involving the pairing of a teacher saying a word with the presentation of preferred events and edibles that resulted in the children repeating the sounds as automatic reinforcement (See Sundberg& Partington, 1998 for a description of this and other verbal behavior tactics developed in another program of research). Yoon (1998) replicated this latter procedure and inserted the newly evoked echoics into the echoic-mand condition and developed true vocal mands. Once the children could echo as a result of acquiring saying sounds as automatic reinforcement, they acquired mand, tact, and autoclitic functions when these latter operants were taught under the conditions specified in Skinner’s theory using the research-based curriculum from the CABAS ® schools (Greer, 1987, 1994a). Thus there are two additional procedures for inducing speech for children for whom our the echoic-mand and echoic to tact, the interrupted chain procedure, or incidental teaching procedure do not work. These procedures have expanded the numbers of children who can communicate with speech rather than sign language or pictures.
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