o Treat with Benadryl Ciguatera Poisoning - Associated with Barracuda bc they eat a specific algae o If barracuda is poisoned by this algae, within a few hrs, experience 1) TINGLING in fingers/toes, 2) Temperature reversal (hot taste cold, vice-versa) 7) Fugu o Properly prepared pufferfish (otherwise you’ll die) TETRADOTOXIN: natural poison in pufferfish o Trace amounts are always present o Which is why you will feel tingling sensation when eating fugu IF IT STOPS BELOW ELBOW: YOU’RE OKAY!!!! Zombie Cucumber: Atropine and Scopolamine - Counteracts Tetradotoxin 8) DOMOIC ACID o From algae o If mussels suck it out from water contaminated o EFFECTS: Short-term memory loss and amnesia 9) Cassava CYANIDE 10) GLYCYRRHIZIN o From real licorice root o EFFECT: robs of potassium, leading to paralysis 11) Comfrey PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS o Negative effect on liver VIDEO #4 BODY CHEMISTRY PROBLEMS 1) Phenylketonurea (PKU) - Rare Genetic condition where people unable to metabolize amino acid PHENYLALANINE o One of the components in aspartame that’s why warning in sweetened drinks - 1 in 20,000 births – detected early in life
2) Lactose Intolerance - Can occur ANY TIME in life - 70% world is lactose intolerant o Not the same as allergy to milk; which is due to a protein called lgE-mediated o Lactose intolerance: an enzyme called lactase is missing to absorb lactose Thus lactose goes straight to the large intestine producing gas - DIAGNOSIS: Breathing test o Bc bacteria in our intestine dining on lactose produce methane and hydrogen gas o Measure amount of hydrogen/methane in breath - Possible Solutions: o Add lactase to milk so milk is pre-digested o Or take the enzyme orally (lactaid) since it can naturally withstand our stomach acidity NOT ALL DAIRY PRODUCTS HAVE SAME LACTOSE CONCENTRATION!! o Yogurt: during fermentation lose a lot of lactose o That’s why lactose intolerant people can eat yogurt 3) Fructose Malabsorption - Similar to lactose intolerance – gassy - This simple sugar doesn’t get absorbed into blood stream from the small intestine – goes straight to large intestine o Figure out problem when eating fruit 4) Hereditary Fructose Intolerance - More serious, genetic condition - These people have strong aversion to sweet foods - NOT inability to absorb fructose rather, it cannot process it properly o Because enzyme: fructose-1-phosphate aldolase deficiency Deficiency = fructose build up; interferes with body’s use of glucose - Gives rise to same symptoms as hypoglycemia : nausea, sweating, tremors, seizures 5) Sugar Alcohols (Xylitol, Sorbitol, Lactitol) - Widely used in processed foods (gum) o Bc unlike sugar, don’t cause cavities o Fewer calories bc not well absorbed - A lot of it gets secreted - May produce diarrhea to wash out xylitol - Laxative effect 6) Favism – from fava beans - Rare genetic condition - Hemolytic anemia – abnormal breakdown of red blood cells o Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency - SYMPTOMS : fatigue, shortness of breath, headache, nausea, fever - Takes YEARS to diagnose FAMOUS SUFFERER: Pythagoras 7) Gluten Sensitivity / Celiac Disease - Dr. Samuel Gee : Children suffered from bloated stomachs, diarrhea, stunted growth
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