gathered his studies about women from other theorists he worked with. He could be viewed as biased, racist, and sexist by many based on how studies certain groups of people in society were done. One of the lesser known but important figures of the Positivist School was Frances Kellor. She was critical of Lombroso and his tendency to mislead. “Kellor worked to refute Lombroso by replicating his studies on different populations (northern white women in prison, northern white women in university, and African-American women in southern penitentiaries). Three years of data collection resulted in her 1901 book, Experimental Sociology, which vindicated the modern idea that the environment, not defective genes, fosters criminal tendencies.”[Joh12] Lombroso was seen to look at women through a prehistoric lens where there were only objective and less than a man, so Kellor gave women their representation in society and crime. She showed that women were capable and educated and criminals with some of the same offense as men. Outside of all this she was a voice for African Americans especially in the south where she saw that blacks were being overly punished simply for being black and that it justice system was failing them. I feel as if this is the case still for some southern states where black offenders are sentenced longer than white offenders ofthe same crimes.ReferencesMoyer, I. L. (2001). Criminological Theories Traditional and Nontraditional Voices and Themes. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Press, J. (Ed.). (2012). Founding Mother: Frances Kellor and the Creation of Modern America. Retrieved from Reading Assignment 2 Questions 2
The 19th century gave rise to a new age of thinking about society and crime. This time introduced us to the functionalist perspective and it was based on the positivists' scientific approach to understanding how society operates. The functionalist’s views were those of “a macro level of analysis with an emphasis on the structure of society” (p.54). The functionalist perspective keyed on creating peace and equal opportunity in the aftermath of changes due to the industrial revolution. One of the key functionalist theorists was Robert Merton and he followed the foundation laid by Emile Durkheim is his theory of anomie.Merton brought the concept of anomie back some 40 years after it was introduced by Durkheim. Merton felt that anomie occurred because of a dissociation between culturally prescribed aspirations and socially structured avenues for realizing these aspirations. He also indicated that “anomie is created within the structure of society whenthere is a disjunction or disparity between the goals emphasized within the cultural structure and the institutionalizedmeans for attaining the goals within the social structure” (p.61). Merton adapted the theory of anomie to a general sociological approach to crime and deviance. He considered that deviance was not caused by sudden social change but was a symptom of a constantly changing social structure.