Working memory is supervised by the prefrontal lobe cortex Chapter 7

Working memory is supervised by the prefrontal lobe

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Working memory is supervised by the prefrontal lobe cortex Chapter 7 Habituation and sensitization – habituation is lowered responsiveness to a stimulus over long periods of exposure, sensitization is heightened responsiveness after long periods of exposure Pavlov’s classical conditioning – when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response (involuntary behaviors) o Unconditioned stimulus – a stimulus that produces a naturally occurring reaction in a subject o Unconditioned response – a subject’s response to an unconditioned stimulus o Conditioned stimulus – a neutral stimulus that can produce a reaction from a subject when paired with an unconditioned stimulus o Conditioned response – a response that is similar to an unconditioned response, produced by a conditioned stimulus o Presenting the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus together is called acquisition o Second order conditioning is pairing another neutral stimulus with the conditioned stimulus, and getting the same original response from the subject o Extinction – gradual decay of the conditioned response after long period of presenting the conditioned stimulus without eh unconditioned stimulus o John Watson and the “little Albert” experiment Operant conditioning – a type of learning where the consequences of a subject’s behavior will determine whether a certain type of behavior will be repeated (voluntary behaviors) o Law of effect – behavior that results in good feelings tend to be repeated, while behavior that results in bed feelings are less likely to be repeated o Operant behavior – the behavior of a subject that causes a change to its environment o The puzzle box was invented by Thorndike, and involved the cat in the box o B.F. Skinner developed “the operant conditioning chamber”, also called the “Skinner Box” Reinforcer – stimulus that is likely to encourage the frequency of the behavior shown
Punisher – stimulus that is likely to discourage the frequency of the behavior shown Increases Behavior Decreases Behavior Stimulus Presented Positive Reinforcement Positive Punishment Stimulus Removed Negative Reinforcement Negative Punishment o Most of the reinforcers that we receive today are secondary reinforcers, because they do not directly provide us with food, warmth, shelter etc. o Schedules of reinforcement Fixed interval scheduling – When a reinforcement is made in exact time intervals (Studying for tests) Variable interval scheduling – When a reinforcement is made in time intervals averaging at a particular time (Radio show promotions) Fixed ratio scheduling – when a reinforcement is made according to a fixed number of responses (coupons for stores) Variable ratio scheduling – when a reinforcement is made according to an average number of responses made (payment of laundry workers) Intermittent reinforcement is less prone to extinction o Latent learning – when learning occurs but is not registered as a behavioral

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