of the area, which he quickly mastered on various ethnic customs and modes of welfare. Pushkin, Lermontove and Gogal are represented as minor figures of Russian prose. V. E. Vatsure is the leading Russian commentator on the gothic. Russian Gothic can be said to drive from an amalgam of European influence on English Gothic novel, the tales of Hoffmann, the French Fantastigue and Frenetigue traditions and the various schools of European idealism. Pushkin is considered the founder of modern Russian literature. In his novel, we find the theme of good versus evil. His novel The Queen of Shebais perceived as a supernatural tale evinced by the presence of the magic cards, a winking corpse and countess’s ghost. Nikolai Gogal’s novel Dead Soulis a satire. His stories often interweave pathos and mockery. Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) was a Russian writer widely regarded as among the greatest. Tolstoy is one of the giants of Russian literature. His masterpieces War and Peace (1812) and Anna Kareninarepresent in their scope, breadth and vivid depiction of nineteenth century Russian life and attitudes. War and Peaceshows the influence of the Gothic evocation of its
77 battle scenes: suffering, injury, terrible situations and death. The novel explores theory of history and in particular the insignificance of individuals such as Napoleon and Alexander. Tolstoy did not consider War and Peaceto be a novel. This view becomes less surprising if one considered that Tolstoy was a novelist of the realist school who considered the novel to be a framework for the examination of social and political issues in nineteenth century life. A large portion of War and Peacefocuses on war, which is associated in our minds with clear-headed strategy and sensible reasoning. Tolstoy constantly emphasizes the irrational motives for human behavior in both peace and war. Wisdom is linked not to reason but to an acceptance of how mysterious our actions can be even to ourselves. General Kutuzov emerges as a great leader not because he develops a logical plan and then demands that everyone follow it, but rather because he is willing to adapt to the flow of events and think on his feet. He revises his plan as each stage turns out to be vastly different from what was expected. Similarly irrational actions include Nicholas’s sudden decision to wed Marry after previous resolving to go back to Sonya and Natasha’s surprising marriage to Pierre. Yet almost all the irrational actions we see in the novel turn out successfully in accordance with instincts in human life that, for Tolstoy lie far deeper than our reasoning minds. Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881): Russian Gothicism as a term has not until recently enjoyed a great deal of currency in critical studies of Russian literature. The word ‘Gothic’ is commonly used in connection with, for an instance, certain early works by Russian novelist, journalist and short story writer Fyodor Dostoevsky or to a lesser extent of his later and more famous novels, which may be recognized as including Gothic elements.