He composed memorable melodies that captured the

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He composed memorable melodies that captured the character and feeling of the drama. Verdi built upon the conventions of Rossini, Bellini, and Donizetti.
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Operas to 1853 Luisa Miller (1849) relates an intimate story of personal tragedy. Rigoletto (1951) was adapted from a play by Victor Hugo. The period culminates in 1853 with Il trovatore and La traviata .
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La traviata La traviata is based on a novel by Alexandre Dumas. The Act III duet follows Rossini’s standard structure. In the tempo d’attacco, the lovers alternate phrases of a tuneful song. In the cantabile, they sing a simple and direct melody looking to the future.
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La traviata, Act III duet structure
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La traviata Tempo di mezzo Hope gives way to despair. Stark contrasts of style capture the changing moods. Cabaletta The form is AABA' with coda. The coda builds to a climax of despair.
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Middle period operas Verdi wrote fewer operas in the next two decades. The action becomes more continuous. Solos, ensembles, and choruses are freely combined. Harmonies are more daring. The orchestra is treated with great originality.
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Middle period operas Les vepres siciliennes (The Sicilian Vespers, 1855) Un ballo in maschera (A Masked Ball, 1859) introduces comic roles. Aida (1871) was commissioned for the Cairo opera. The Egyptian subject allowed him to introduce exotic color and spectacle. Verdi retired after this opera.
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Late operas Giulio Ricordi persuaded him to compose two more operas, both on librettos by Arrigo Boito (1842–1918). Otello (1887) The music is uninterrupted in each of the acts. The traditional schemes are arranged in larger scene-complexes. The orchestra develops themes in a more symphonic manner.
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Late operas Falstaff (1893) This pinnacle of opera buffa is based on Shakespeare’s The Merry Wives of Windsor and Henry IV . The final act ends in a fugue for the entire cast.
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GERMANY
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Der Freischutz ̈ (The Magic Rifleman) Der Freischutz ̈ (The Magic Rifleman) by Carl Maria von Weber (1786–1826) established German Romantic opera.
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Der Freischutz ̈ (The Magic Rifleman) Ordinary folk are placed center stage. The story involves supernatural beings set against a background of wilderness and mystery. The musical style draws upon traditions of other countries, but also uses simple, folklike melodies, giving it a distinctly German quality. The chromatic harmonies and orchestral color are original.
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Wolf’s Glen Scene Set around midnight at the eerie Wolf’s Glen It incorporates elements of melodrama, a genre of musical theater that combines spoken dialogue with background music.
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RICHARD WAGNER (1813– 1883)
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Richard Wagner (1813–1883) Wagner was a crucial figure in nineteenth- century culture and one of the most influential musicians of all times. He brought German Romantic opera to new heights. He created the music drama.
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Richard Wagner (1813–1883) Gesamtkunstwerk: poetry, scenic design, staging, action, and music work together to create a unified work of art Wagner created drama on two levels. The inner drama: the orchestra The outer drama: the sung words
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Richard Wagner (1813–1883) Wagner condemned superficial arias.
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  • Fall '07
  • Howell
  • Music, grand opera, Una Voce poco, Voce Poco Fa

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