They do not consider the complex array of light information reflecting from all surfaces and objectsoThey focus on how it is that we build internal representation of objects duringthe process of identification; Whereas Gibson focused on how information is directly perceived -Pattern recognition– The ability to recognize an event as an instance of a particularcategory of events oI.e. You recognize the component of these sentences as words, and not scribbles -Memory Trace– The trace that an experience leaves in memory oUsed when reliving an experienced (such as seeing the letter A again as you learn how to write) -Hoffding Function– The process whereby an experience makes contact with a memory trace, resulting in recognition Template Matching -Template– Possible that we store them in memory that corresponds to the standardforms of the configuration we see. -Prototypical – Representative of a pattern or category oThe process of template-matchinginvolves comparing the current configuration (Letter A) to a Prototypical Form (Letter A) oIf the prototypical form is similar enough, we will recognize the letter -Multiple trace memory model– A memory trace of an individual event is recorded every time. oProbe – A snapshot of information in primary memory that can activate memory traces in secondary memory oEcho – When a probe goes out from primary to secondary memory, memory traces are activated to the extent that they are similar to the probe; made up of all contributions from memory traces oI.e. You hear multiple voices in a choir, just like multiple memory traces can beactivated by a probe, where the property of individual memory traces will be lost, and only a general impression of what they all have in common (Choir) will remain. Study: Posner and Colleagues P’s are shown distortion of several different prototypical patterns, which were formed by randomly moving dots. These sets of distortion were referred to as concepts. P’s were shown the concepts, but not the prototypes themselves. They were later required to classify another set of patterns into the various concepts. This time, however, the patterns consisted of the prototypes, the original distortions and some new distortions. Results: The prototypical patterns were quite easily identified (eventhough they havenot been seen before). Participants sometimes misidentified the prototype as a pattern they have seen before
Conclusion – The memory traces of the set of distorted patterns produce an echo based on what the different distortions have in common, rather than the peculiarities of each individual distortion. Therefore, the prototype is recognized even though it has never been seen before. Once an echo has been experienced, it can leave a memory trace itself.