Title IV of the act authorized the withholding of federal funds from any institution or agency violating the law. Associated Press Lyndon B. Johnson (seated) shakes hands with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., after signing the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Upon the signing of this act, schools were prohibited from discriminating against students on the basis of race, color, or national origin.
Section 8.2 School Desegregation Also important to education, by virtue of increasing minority participation in state, local, and school board elections, was Title I, which prohibits the unequal application of voter registra- tion requirements that had been used to suppress minority voting. Thus, so-called literacy tests that went well beyond proving the voter’s ability to read and write and asked increasingly difficult and arcane questions about the voting process, such as what time of day a senator was sworn into office, . . . designed to ensure Blacks in the South and Hispanics in the Southwest would not be able to vote became illegal. (Miksch, 2011, p. 1) Title IV of the Civil Rights Act authorized a survey to determine the availability of equal edu- cational opportunities for all students in public institutions in the United States. The survey of over 600,000 students and teachers nationwide was directed by James Coleman of Johns Hopkins University, and the report it generated, Equality of Educational Opportunity , was made available to Congress in less than two years. The Coleman Report In what has been widely considered the most important education study of the 20th century (Kivint, 2001), the Coleman Report , as it became known, found that for most student popula- tions there seemed to be little relationship between school inputs (for example, expenditures per pupil, class size, number of library books, and facilities) and student achievement. Rather, the single most important variable was the educational and social class background of the family, and the second most important variable was the educational and social class back- ground of the other children in the school. The verbal ability of the teacher was found to be the most important school variable linked to student test scores. Although it lent little support to compensatory education , as a result of its finding that poor African American students’ performance improved in integrated schools, the report provided support for integration, including the controversial practice of busing students to schools other than their local one to achieve racial balance. Subsequent analysis has suggested that the determining factor is really students’ socioeconomic status, not their racial or ethnic identity. Nevertheless, the Coleman Report generated considerable discussion over the next two or three decades concerning the extent to which schools make a difference in student achievement, or whether it is too late by the time the child gets to school.
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