4 the entire second paragraph is sarcasm exercise 5

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4. The entire second paragraph is sarcasm. Exercise 5-15 1. a 2. d 3. a 4. a 5. c 6. a 7. c 8. e 9. b 10. d Exercise 5-16 ▲1. The quotation marks downplay the quality of the school. 2. Euphemism (“ethnic cleansing”) 3. “Obamacare” is a combination of dysphemism and sarcasm; the rest contains three rhetorical comparisons packed into very few words. ▲4. Rhetorial definition 5. Euphemism ▲6. No rhetorical device present 7. “Internment camps” is a euphemism. ▲8. “Gaming” is a euphemism for “gambling.” 9. Rhetorical definition 10. Rhetorical definition ▲11. “Clearly” is a proof surrogate; the final phrase is hyperbole. 12. “Serious junk” is a dysphemism. 13. “Nevertheless” is a mild downplayer. ▲14. “Luddites” (those opposed to technological progress) is a rhetorical analogy; the entire passage is designed to suggest that cable and satellite TV are nearly universal in acceptance and use and to characterize in a negative light those (few?) who haven’t become subscribers. IM – 5 | 5
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Exercise 5-17 “Filling the coffers” and “bleeding dry” are dysphemisms; “whopping” functions similarly to a dysphemism here, acting to paint the difference as exceptionally large; “going over to the dark side” is a dysphemism, and so is “spineless.” “A fantasy come true” is a rhetorical way of saying they like it. “Sky-high” suggests a bit more than just “high”; “amazingly” emphasizes that the Senate made a bad mistake. Exercise 5-18 ▲1. “Japan, Inc.” is a dysphemism. 2. No device 3. Innuendo at the end of the passage ▲4. “Getting access” is a euphemism, and, in this context, so is “constituents.” We’ll bet it isn’t just any old constituent who gets the same kind of “access” as big campaign contributors. 5. “Tax scheme” is a dysphemism. ▲6. The last sentence is hyperbolic. 7. We think the last sentence is sarcasm, since the second memo actually contradicted the first one. 8. “So-called” is a downplayer; “fat cat” is a dysphemism. ▲9. (We really like this one.) “Even,” in the first sentence, is innuendo, insinuating that members of Congress are more difficult to embarrass than others. The remainder is another case of innuendo with a dash of downplaying. Although it’s a first-class example, it’s different from the usual ones. Mellinkoff makes you think that Congress merely passes a law in response to the situation. But stop and think for a moment: Aside from the odd congressional hearing or impeachment trial, all that Congress can do is pass laws! So Mellinkoff’s charge really should not be seen as belittling Congress at all. 10. “Designated grown-ups” is a cute phrase, but we don’t think there are slanting devices here. 11. “Abundant evidence suggests . . .” is a proof surrogate. What evidence?
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