Ultra Polished Connector UPCExtensive polishing of the tips creates an Ultra

Ultra polished connector upcextensive polishing of

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• Ultra Polished Connector (UPC)—Extensive polishing of the tips creates an Ultra Polished Connector (UPC) , which increases efciency through the connection. • Angle Polished Connector (APC)— still uses a polished curved surface, but the end faces are placed at an angle to each other. The industry standard for this angle is 8°. Photo Connector Polish characteristics duplex? LC PC, UPC, APC 1.25 mm Yes ST PC, UPC 2.5 mm No FC PC, UPC, APC 2.5 mm Yes SC PC, UPC, APC 2.5 mm Can be MT-RJ N/A 2 fbers Yes fber couplers can be used to connect like terminations Fiber-Optic Converters and Modular Interfaces(read modular) As long as networks contain both copper and fber media, some kind of conversion must take place. Converters are needed to connect the fber- and copper-based parts of a network. A bidirectional converter accepts the signal from one part of the network, then Downloaded by Jack Thompson ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|3523342
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retransmits or regenerates the signal and sends it on to the next part of the network. This process of retransmitting a signal is known as regeneration . Ethernet Standards for Fiber-Optic Cable Standard Maximum transmission speed (Mbps) Maximum distance per segment (m) Physical media 100Base-FX Fast Ethernet 100 412 for half-duplex 2000 for full-duplex MMF 1000Base-LX Gigabit Ethernet 1000 550 for MMG 5000 for SMF MMF or SMF 1000Base-SX Gigabit Ethernet 1000 Up to 550, depending on modal bandwidth and fber core diameter MMF 10GBase-SR and 10GBase-SW 10-Gigabit Ethernet 10,000 Up to 300, depending on modal bandwidth and fber core diameter MMF 10GBase-LR and 10GBase-LW 10-Gigabit Ethernet 10,000 10,000 SMF 10GBase-ER and 10GBase-EW 10-Gigabit Ethernet 10,000 40,000 SMF Troubleshooting Cable Problems- Symptoms of cabling problems can be as elusive as occasional lost packets or as obvious as a break in network connectivity. Transmission Flaws- Both analog and digital signals are susceptible to degradation between the time they are issued by a transmitter and the time they are received. The most common is noise. Noise can degrade or distort a signal. A common source of noise is EMI. One type of EMI is RFI (radio frequency interference) , or electromagnetic interference caused by radio waves. When EMI noise afects analog signals, this distortion can result in the incorrect transmission of data, this type of noise afects digital signals much less. Because digital signals do not depend on subtle amplitude or frequency diferences to communicate information. Cross-talk occurs when a signal traveling on one wire or cable infringes on the signal traveling over an adjacent wire or cable In data networks, cross-talk can be extreme enough to prevent the accurate delivery of data. Three common types are: alien cross-talk —Cross-talk that occurs between two cables near end cross-talk (NEXT) —Cross-talk that occurs between wire pairs near the source of a signal far end cross-talk (FEXT) —Cross-talk measured at the far end of the cable from the signal source Attenuation- the loss of a signal’s strength as it travels away from its source. To compensate for attenuation, both analog and digital signals are boosted en route.
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