• Ultra Polished Connector (UPC)—Extensive polishing of the tips creates an Ultra Polished Connector (UPC), which increases efciency through the connection.• Angle Polished Connector (APC)— still uses a polished curved surface, but the end faces are placed at an angle to each other. The industry standard for this angle is 8°.PhotoConnectorPolishcharacteristicsduplex?LCPC, UPC, APC1.25 mmYesSTPC, UPC2.5 mmNoFCPC, UPC, APC2.5 mmYesSCPC, UPC, APC2.5 mmCan beMT-RJN/A2 fbersYesfber couplerscan be used to connect like terminationsFiber-Optic Converters and Modular Interfaces(read modular)As long as networks contain both copper and fber media, some kind of conversion must take place. Converters are needed to connect the fber- and copper-based parts of a network. A bidirectional converter accepts the signal from one part of the network, then Downloaded by Jack Thompson ([email protected])lOMoARcPSD|3523342
retransmits or regenerates the signal and sends it on to the next part of the network. This process of retransmitting a signal is known as regeneration.Ethernet Standards for Fiber-Optic CableStandardMaximum transmission speed (Mbps)Maximum distance per segment (m)Physical media100Base-FX Fast Ethernet100412 for half-duplex2000 for full-duplexMMF1000Base-LXGigabit Ethernet1000550 for MMG5000 for SMFMMF or SMF1000Base-SXGigabit Ethernet1000Up to 550, depending on modal bandwidth and fber core diameterMMF10GBase-SR and 10GBase-SW10-Gigabit Ethernet10,000Up to 300, depending on modal bandwidth and fber core diameterMMF10GBase-LR and 10GBase-LW10-Gigabit Ethernet10,00010,000SMF10GBase-ER and 10GBase-EW10-Gigabit Ethernet10,00040,000SMFTroubleshooting Cable Problems- Symptoms of cabling problems can be as elusive as occasional lost packets or as obvious as a break in network connectivity.Transmission Flaws-Both analog and digital signals are susceptible to degradation between the time they are issued by a transmitter and the time they are received. The mostcommon is noise.Noisecan degrade or distort a signal. A common source of noise is EMI. One type of EMI is RFI (radio frequency interference), or electromagnetic interference caused by radio waves.When EMI noise afects analog signals, this distortion can result in the incorrect transmissionof data, this type of noise afects digital signals much less. Because digital signals do not depend on subtle amplitude or frequency diferences to communicate information.Cross-talkoccurs when a signal traveling on one wire or cable infringes on the signal traveling over an adjacent wire or cableIn data networks, cross-talk can be extreme enough to prevent the accurate delivery of data. Three common types are:• alien cross-talk—Cross-talk that occurs between two cables• near end cross-talk (NEXT)—Cross-talk that occurs between wire pairs near the sourceof a signal• far end cross-talk (FEXT)—Cross-talk measured at the far end of the cable from thesignal sourceAttenuation-the loss of a signal’s strength as it travels away from its source. To compensate for attenuation, both analog and digital signals are boosted en route.