Low if cohesiveness is low and performance norms are

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low. If cohesiveness is low and performance norms are high, productivity increases but less than in the high cohesiveness high norms situation. When cohesiveness and performance - related norms are both low, productivity will tend to fall into the low - to - moderate range. 103. Groupthink is related to norms. It describes situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views. Groupthink is a disease that attacks many groups and can dramatically hinder their performance. Groupshift indicates that in discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions that they hold. In some situations, caution dominates, and there is a conservative shift. More often, however, the evidence indicates that groups tend toward a risky shift. 104. The five - stage group development model characterizes groups as proceeding through five distinct stages: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. a) Forming is characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group's purpose, structure, and leadership. Members are testing the waters to determine what types of behavior are acceptable. b) In the storming stage, members accept the existence of the group, but there is resistance to the constraints that the group imposes on individuality. There is conflict over who will control the group. c) The third stage is one in which close relationships develop and the group demonstrates cohesiveness. There is now a strong sense of group identify and camaraderie. This norming stage is complete when the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations of what defines correct member behavior. d) The fourth stage is performing. The structure at this point is fully functional and accepted. Group energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing the task at hand. e) In the adjourning stage, the group prepares for its disbandment. High task performance is no longer the group's top priority. Instead, attention is directed toward wrapping up activities.
105. The punctuated equilibrium model is an alternative model for temporary groups with deadlines. They don't follow the five - stage group development model. They have their own unique sequencing of actions. Their first meeting sets the group's direction. This first phase of group activity is one of inertia. A transition takes place at the end of this phase, which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its allotted time. A transition initiates major changes. A second phase of inertia follows the transition and the group's last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity. The punctuated equilibrium model characterizes groups as exhibiting long periods of inertia interspersed with brief revolutionary changes triggered primarily by their members' awareness of time and deadlines.

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