low. If cohesiveness is low and performance norms are high, productivity increases but less than in the
high cohesiveness high norms situation. When cohesiveness and performance
related norms are both low,
productivity will tend to fall into the low
Groupthink is related to norms. It describes situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the
group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views. Groupthink is a disease that
attacks many groups and can dramatically hinder their performance. Groupshift indicates that in
discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the
initial positions that they hold. In some situations, caution dominates, and there is a conservative shift.
More often, however, the evidence indicates that groups tend toward a risky shift.
stage group development model characterizes groups as proceeding through five distinct stages:
forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.
a) Forming is characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group's purpose, structure,
leadership. Members are testing the waters to determine what types of behavior are
b) In the storming stage, members accept the existence of the group, but there is resistance to the
constraints that the group imposes on individuality. There is conflict over who will control the
The third stage is one in which close relationships develop and the group demonstrates
There is now a strong sense of group identify and camaraderie. This norming
stage is complete
when the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations of what
defines correct member behavior.
d) The fourth stage is performing. The structure at this point is fully functional and accepted.
energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing the
task at hand.
e) In the adjourning stage, the group prepares for its disbandment. High task performance is no
the group's top priority. Instead, attention is directed toward wrapping up activities.