Greatest harmful effect generators to the environment

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greatest harmful effect generators to the environment with the use of chemical materials and processes (Gardetti and Muthu 2015 ). For instance, globally, 40 % of clothing is made with natural cotton fi ber, one of the most chemically dependent crops consuming 10 % of all chemicals and 25 % of the insecticides used in worldwide agricultural industries (Sweeny 2015 ). The accumulated harmful chemical residuals used in textile production are released, often untreated and directly into water sources, will eventually destroy the soil, water, and the environment (Oecotextiles N.D.). Together with the cultivation of raw materials, in the textile industry, the harmful effects are created throughout 18 K.E. Lee
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the life cycle of textile products including raw material production processes (e.g., fi bers, yarns, and textiles), garment production processes (e.g., assembly and packaging), and consumption of manufactured textile products (e.g., end use, recycling, and discarding) (Khan and Islam 2015 ). For instance, in 2012, the denim industry occupied approximately 30 % in the total global apparel industry (Greenpeace 2012 ). Due to the excessive use of synthetic indigo dyeing methods, over 70 % of water was contaminated in the world s greatest denim-producing country, Mexico; hence, water scarcity has become a serious problem in Mexican society (Greenpeace 2012 ). In addition to chemical discharge into water sources, during textile manufac- turing processes, such as dyeing, printing, and fi nishing, an excessive amount of water, fossil fuels, and electrical energy is consumed (Oecotextiles 2013 ; Sivaramakrishnan 2009 ). Each year, over a half trillion gallons of freshwater is used in textile dyeing and approximately 70 million barrels of oil are consumed for virgin polyester production to be used in fabric manufacturing. As an example of the results of water consumption in the textile industry, the Aral Sea, the water source for the world s sixth largest cotton producer, Uzbekistan, currently has only 10 % of the water levels that were available 50 years ago (Sweeny 2015 ). Fast fashion is a retailing approach capable of creating new trendy merchandise with quick turnover in retail stores (Loeb 2015 ). In 2013, the global fashion market size was 192,334 million euro with an 2.75 % annual growth rate that accounts for approximately 11 % of the total global apparel market (Fashionbi 2013 ; Marketwired 2014 ). Due to rapid product changeability and poor quality, some- times fast fashion signi fi cantly contributed to creating a non-eco-friendly disposable clothing culture in which consumers dispose of clothing after wearing it once or twice; such a clothing culture impacts the packing of land fi ll spaces on the earth (Chau 2012 ). 3 Environmentally Sustainable Consumption and Production in the Textile Industry As a result of severe environmental impacts created by the textile industry, envi- ronmental sustainability has become a fundamental concern for textile manufac- turers businesses and consumers lifestyles and product purchase choices (Khan and Islam 2015 ). Hence, textile companies should develop initiatives to motivate their stakeholders (e.g., the owners, supply chains, and retailers) to participate in
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