context in which the USDA and dairy industry ally to in-crease milk consumption among a U.S. public of increasing biological, ethnic, and dietary diversity. The story thathey tell about lactase persistence has become the domnant story; challenges to it are trivialized or described asubversive. This axis of biological variation, so celebrateby biological anthropologists, is relegated to a somewhainteresting yet, ultimately, meaningless fact, except insofaras it threatens to impede full enculturation into a dairyconsuming culture.ANDREA S. WILEY Program in Anthropology, JamesMadison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807NOTESAcknowledgments. I gratefully acknowledge the help of a group ofexcellent anthropology students atJames Madison University, mostespecially Adam Southall, for his careful research and commentson this manuscript. Likewise, Angel Shockley, Naheed Ahmed,Haley Thrift, and Jessica Fowler contributed useful insights. KimButler's thesis work on milk advertising was particularly helpful.Ric Thompson, Alex Brewis, and Richard Lippke all provided valu-able feedback on earlier drafts of this article. The editors of AA werevery helpful in recasting the article for the broadest anthropologicalaudience.1. A lack of consistency in terminology is evident in introductorybiological anthropology textbooks. In a sample of four textbooks,two referred to lactase impersistence simply as lactose intolerance(Jurmain et al. 2000; Relethford 2003); one referred to it as lac-tase deficiency (Stein and Rowe 2000); and another referred to it aslow digestive capacity (Boyd and Silk 2003).2. In a preliminary proposal for new revised Dietary Guidelines,calcium-enriched soy products are added as an alternativein the dairy category (see -update/FGP%20docs/TABLE%201.pdf). It remains to be seenThis content downloaded from 126.96.36.199 on Mon, 22 Oct 2018 21:21:17 UTCAll use subject to
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516 American Anthropologist * Vol. 106, No. 3 * September 2004whether this will be kept in the final version, although DeanFoods, one of the largest dairy corporations, also owns Morningstar,which makes Sun Soy, a soymilk brand.3. Robert Heaney and Connie Weaver (1990) found that thecalcium available in kale was higher than that in milk. Othersources disparage the calcium density and bioavailability of veg-etable foods: "A person would need to consume 8 cups of spinach,nearly 5 cups of red beans, or 2 cups of broccoli to get the sameamount of calcium absorbed from 1 cup of milk" (NDC 2003b).4. It should also be noted that many schools have "pouring rights"contracts with soft drink corporations, and students often choosesoft drinks over milk at school. Given the high sugar content of sodaand its potential contribution to the current epidemic of childhoodobesity, this issue is a key concern of ASFSA members.
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