context in which the USDA and dairy industry ally to in crease milk consumption

Context in which the usda and dairy industry ally to

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context in which the USDA and dairy industry ally to in- crease milk consumption among a U.S. public of increas ing biological, ethnic, and dietary diversity. The story tha they tell about lactase persistence has become the dom nant story; challenges to it are trivialized or described a subversive. This axis of biological variation, so celebrate by biological anthropologists, is relegated to a somewha interesting yet, ultimately, meaningless fact, except insofar as it threatens to impede full enculturation into a dairy consuming culture. ANDREA S. WILEY Program in Anthropology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807 NOTES Acknowledgments. I gratefully acknowledge the help of a group of excellent anthropology students atJames Madison University, most especially Adam Southall, for his careful research and comments on this manuscript. Likewise, Angel Shockley, Naheed Ahmed, Haley Thrift, and Jessica Fowler contributed useful insights. Kim Butler's thesis work on milk advertising was particularly helpful. Ric Thompson, Alex Brewis, and Richard Lippke all provided valu- able feedback on earlier drafts of this article. The editors of AA were very helpful in recasting the article for the broadest anthropological audience. 1. A lack of consistency in terminology is evident in introductory biological anthropology textbooks. In a sample of four textbooks, two referred to lactase impersistence simply as lactose intolerance (Jurmain et al. 2000; Relethford 2003); one referred to it as lac- tase deficiency (Stein and Rowe 2000); and another referred to it as low digestive capacity (Boyd and Silk 2003). 2. In a preliminary proposal for new revised Dietary Guidelines, calcium-enriched soy products are added as an alternative in the dairy category (see - update/FGP%20docs/TABLE%201.pdf). It remains to be seen This content downloaded from on Mon, 22 Oct 2018 21:21:17 UTC All use subject to
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516 American Anthropologist * Vol. 106, No. 3 * September 2004 whether this will be kept in the final version, although Dean Foods, one of the largest dairy corporations, also owns Morningstar, which makes Sun Soy, a soymilk brand. 3. Robert Heaney and Connie Weaver (1990) found that the calcium available in kale was higher than that in milk. Other sources disparage the calcium density and bioavailability of veg- etable foods: "A person would need to consume 8 cups of spinach, nearly 5 cups of red beans, or 2 cups of broccoli to get the same amount of calcium absorbed from 1 cup of milk" (NDC 2003b). 4. It should also be noted that many schools have "pouring rights" contracts with soft drink corporations, and students often choose soft drinks over milk at school. Given the high sugar content of soda and its potential contribution to the current epidemic of childhood obesity, this issue is a key concern of ASFSA members.
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