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Psychology in Action

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Other similarities include the profit that accrues to those who hold these jobs. During the witchhunting era, witchhunters were paid per head, so the more people they diagnosed the greater their financial security. There is a similar trend in the area of mental health. The public is constantly bombarded with surveys as to the number of people who are mentally ill and told of dire consequences if there treatment needs are not met. State legislatures then appropriate money for clinics and for professionals in these clinics. The longer a person stays in treatment (the worse their condition), the easier it is for the therapist. Another way to get more patients is to increase the number of categories of mental disorder. Each editing of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual has become larger and includes more categories. Szasz, giving examples of all "suspect" childhood behaviors (which include everything a child does), compares this over-classification with the standard psychiatric joke of the anxious patient who comes early, the hostile patient who comes late, and the obsessive-compulsive who comes on time. You can't win. What actually stopped the practice of witchcraft? Szasz does not credit this to the emergence of altruistic motivations. He says it ceased when the practice of witchpricking became so common that it was a nuisance to society. Are we approaching that point with seeing mental disorder in all behaviors? Do we really need psychiatry for infants or psychotherapy for unhappy dogs and cats? Source: Szasz, T. S. (1970). The Manufacture of Madness . New York: Dell Publishing Co. Instructor’s Resource Guide                              Chapter 14                                         Page   182
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  K ey T erms STUDYING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS abnormal behavior (p. 475) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) (p. 479) insanity (p. 480) medical model (p. 478) neurosis (p. 480) psychiatry (p. 478) psychosis (p. 480) ANXIETY DISORDERS anxiety disorder (p.484) generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (p. 484) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (p. 485) panic disorder (p. 484) phobia (p. 485) MOOD DISORDERS bipolar disorder (p. 489) learned helplessness (p. 490) major depressive disorder (p. 488) mood disorder (p. 488) SCHIZOPHRENIA delusions (p. 496) diathesis-stress model (p. 498) dopamine hypothesis (p. 497) hallucinations (p. 495) schizophrenia [skit-so-Free-nee-uh],(p. 493) OTHER DISORDERS antisocial personality disorder (p. 503) borderline personality disorder (BPD) (p. 503) comorbidity (p. 501) dissociative disorder (p. 502) dissociative identity disorder (DID) (p. 502) personality disorders (p. 503) substance-related disorders (p. 500) Instructor’s Resource Guide                              Chapter 14                                         Page   183
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    D iscussion Q uestions 1. Who should have the power to define abnormality: societies, political groups, governmental or legal agencies, or mental health professionals? What might be the advantages and disadvantages to allowing one or all of these groups have the final say?
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