found out how animals learned even in the wild. Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning which is characterized by reflexes, stimuli & responses. Classical Conditioning: Learning by Association. Learning is the relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavioral potential) due to experience
Conditioning is a basic kind of learning that involves associations among environmental stimuli and an organism’s behavior Forming New Reflexes from Old Acquisition of Conditioned Response At the start a stimulus that is unknown to an individual is explored and over time an association is acquired Extinction occurs when the conditional stimuli no longer creates a conditioned response because the association has long since been forgotten Stimulus Generalization After conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning In classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimuli elicits the conditioned response Stimulus Discrimination The tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli In classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus similar to the conditioned stimuli fails to evoke the conditioned response
The Foot-in-The-Door Technique What is Actually Learned in Classical Conditioning? 1. The stimulus to be conditioned should precede the unconditioned stimulus. 2. The first stimulus predicts the second Learning to Fear. Learning to Like. A person can learn to fear just about anything if it is paired with something that elicits pain, surprise, or embarrassment. A person can learn to like objects that have been associated in the past with positive feelings. Accounting for Taste Many people learn to dislike a food after eating it and then falling ill, even when the two events are unrelated. The Birth of Radical Behaviorism B.F. Skinner Radical Behaviorism Distinguished from Watson’s classical conditioning External causes of an action Action’s consequences Explain behavior by looking outside
Consequences of Behavior. Reinforcement is the process by which a stimulus or event that strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows Punishment is the process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows Positive and Negative Reinforcers and Punishers Provides you with something you do not like Takes away something you like Memory aids
How We Remember Mnemonics: Strategies and tricks for improving memory Effective encoding Rehearsal Maintenance Rehearsal Rote repetition of material in order to maintain its availability in memory Elaborative Rehearsal Association of new information with already stored knowledge and analysis of the new information to make it memorable Deep Processing : In the encoding of information, the processing of meaning rather than simply the physical or sensory features of a stimulus Read, Recite, Review : An active process that has been shown to enhance study efforts and
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