MEMS1054_week4_6v3shorter-crystaldiffraction1

Set of planes of atoms miller indices hkl is an

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set of planes of atoms, Miller indices (hkl), is an integer multiple of the x-ray wavelength, λ : n λ = 2 d sin ( θ ) Since d hkl = n d nhnknl , λ = 2 d hkl sin ( θ hkl )
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Figure 15 – Bragg`s Law of ‘Reflection’ (Guy & Hren))
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X-Ray Crystallography One can determine the crystal structure of a metal, salt or oxide by diffracting X-rays by the crystal – X-rays have wavelength ( λ ) similar to crystal unit cell dimensions, which capture the long-range periodic arrangements of the atoms. The Bragg Law imposes basic constraints on experiments for diffraction from crystals! X-Ray Technique λ θ Prime Application Laue Method Variable Fixed Crystal Orientation Rotating Crystal Fixed Variable Crystal Structure Debye-Scherrer (powder) Fixed Variable Crystal Structure X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Fixed Variable Phase ID
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Figure 17 – The Laue method of X-ray diffraction (Reference (1)) X-rays from source go through collimator, striking a fixed single crystal.
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Laue Methods … single crystal orientation and quality assessment
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Rotating Crystal Methods … single crystal quality assessment, structure determination…
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Figure 18 - The production of a powder-method diffraction pattern on film (Debye-Sherrer, Reference, Guy & Hren) X-rays from source go through collimator, striking either a powder sample
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Hull/Debye-Scherrer Methods … crystal structure and phase identification, internal stresses etc… Powder X-ray Diffraction Method
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X-ray-Diffractometer … crystal structure and phase identification, internal stresses etc (Most versatile) …
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  • Fall '10
  • Wiezorek
  • Diffraction, x-ray diffraction, Bragg Law

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