Sport Psychology Assignment 1.docx

23 there are four categories of punishers 1 physical

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23. There are four categories of punishers: 1. Physical punishment: activate pain receptors or other sensory receptors, which typically evoke feelings of discomfort. Examples of this include spankings or cold showers. 2. Reprimands: A strong negative verbal stimulus contingent upon behavior. Examples include, “No!” or “Don’t be an idiot!” 3. Timeout: transferring an individual from a more reinforcing situation following a particular behavior. For example, a coach making a hockey player sit on the sidelines while all other players enjoy playing a scrimmage. 4. Response cost: removal of a specified amount of reinforce following a particular behavior. Examples include player fines for violating team rules. *25. . Escape conditioning is a procedure of the removal of an aversive stimulus after a response, and a result, the response is strengthened. An example would be if a soccer player learns to successfully cross the ball between an opponents legs and continue running, this soccer player will more likely continue to kick the ball through players legs during other matches. Unit 4
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*8. The frequency of a behavior is the number of repetitions of a behavior in a set time interval. An example would be the number of times a basketball player makes free throws. *9. The duration of a behavior is the length of time spent engaging the behavior. For example, the time spent making free throws by a basketball player. *12. There are three steps typically followed in an application of shaping. First, one must identify the final desired behavior in terms of one or more of its dimensions. For example, a swimmer making sure that their form is proper when doing backstroke. Second, one must identify a starting behavior that the individual currently emits and that approximates the target behavior. An example would be the swimmer properly bends the knees and relaxes the feet but the arms don’t fully match the proper form. Lastly, one must reinforce successive approximations from the starting behavior to the final desired behavior across trials. For example, the swimmer continues to do laps until the hands fully cut through the water properly. *13. Fading is the gradual change over successive trials of an antecedent stimulus that controls an operant response so that the response eventually occurs to a partially changed or completely new antecedent stimulus. For example, a basketball coach might talk a beginner through the correct form when shooting a basket, and then after the player understands the coach will gradually stop. *16. A behavioral chain is a consistent sequence of stimuli and responses that follow each other closely in time, and which terminates in a reinforcer. For example serving in volleyball, the ball is one hand and the other hand is pulled back ready to hit the ball to a certain location. Standing just at the service line provides a cue to see where opponents are located and where a good spot to aim the ball is. The last step is for
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