Drink water containing copepods with L3 larvae. Larvae are released when copepods die and they penetrate the hosts stomach and intestinal wall, they mature and reproduce. Fertilized female worm migrates to surface of skin, causes a blister and discharges larvae. L1 larvae released into water from the emerging female worm. L1 larvae consumed by a copepod. Finally larvae undergoes two molts in the copepod becomes a L3 larvae.16. Describe the progression of Guinea Worm Disease (GWD) – (What are the clinical manifestations? How does the disease resolve?). Typically asymptomatic for 1 year, painful blister develops over several days. May get fever, itchy rash, dizziness, nausea, vomiting just before worm emerges. Immersion of blister in water worm senses temperature, difference emerges releasing larva. 17. How does GWD affect local populations (social and economic impacts)?Mortality low but morbidity significant pain and secondary complications, functionally disability such as impaired mobility (8.5 weeks), 60% school absenteeism. 18. How did understanding the biology of GWD lead to a strategy for prevention?Protect the water supply, provide safe drinking water. Eliminate the survival of the GW by a year19. Why was GWD a good choice for an eradication effort?No vaccines needed, and it was a public health issue. 20. What 4 intervention steps were decided upon in the path to the eradication of GWD?Surveillance, education and community involvement, safe drinking water, and vector control.21. How successful has the eradication effort been?Very successful.
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