Lecture 7 – Cardiovascular Physiology I

Tissues of the body to a capillary bed with gas

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tissues of the body, to a capillary bed with gas exchange, then back to the heart in the  right atrium Vessels like arterioles, venuoles, and capillaries are microcirculation Distribution of systemic blood flow at rest About 5 L/min Broken down between a lot of organs and muscles These ratios are changes depending on the activity The heart is a pump  Only mammals have a four chambered heart birds have a four chambered heart but development is different therefore it is not  homologous muscular pump that is the driving force for TWO separate circuits arranged in series pulmonary circuit goes from right heart to left heart systemic comes back though vena cava to right atrium it is required that the heart develops enough pressure to send blood simultaneously  through two circuits in series the flow has to be the same it has to have appropriate pressure generated the pulmonary circulation is comparatively low pressure much more robust on the left side of the heart
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heart is a series of chambers that contract in a specific order with a certain force  sending blood in ONE direction  blood comes in through superior and inferior vena cava tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart keeps the blood from flowing in two  directions blood can only exit the ventricle through the pulmonary semilunar valve, prevents  backflow into the valve Myocardium Set of cardiac muscle that does the pumping when it contracts Provides the pressure to send the blood through parts of circulation Surrounded by an epicardium Lubricates the movements of the heart Design Constraints of the heart Heart has to pump blood continuously throughout life The entire muscle has to contract with each beat Entire muscle has to relax with each beat Adapt quickly to changes in demand  Force and frequency of contraction Blood flow has to be unidirectional Cardiac Muscle Arranged in layers Only have one nucleus Hooked end to end with one another by special connections There are desmosomes which tie the muscle cells together
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