Subshells are filled with one electron first until

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: subshells are filled with ONE electron first until all subshells are filled, then with 2 electrons. - Hund’s Rule : electrons are put into separate subshells (such as p x , p y , p z ) with the same spin first, then paired with oppoosite spins (see the example for Oxygen) - These two rules provide for the LOWEST energy arrangement of electrons around an atom (by minimizing electron-electron repulsion). 7 N 8 O 9 F 10 Ne
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- Note, that like He, Ne has NO empty orbitals. Ne, like all noble gases in main group 8, have this electron configuration and are therefore VERY stable and unreactive. This is termed the noble gas configuration . You should know how to write the electron configurations for the first 38 elements, no f blocks. 11 Na - We can abbreviate the electron configuration of Na by using the noble gas configuration. Let’s look at some d block electrons 19 K 20 Ca 21 Sc 22 Ti 23 V 24 Cr 25 Cr (*) An electron is promoted from the s orbital to fill all the d subshells in Cr, Mo, and W.
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29 Cu (*) - Same thing happens here, an electron is promoted from the s orbital to fill ALL the d subshells. This creates a more stable; lower E state for the atoms Cu, Ag, and Au. Magnetism of Atoms = spinning UNPAIRED electrons create their own magnetic field. Paired electrons in the same shell have no net magnetic field as their spins cancel. Paramagnetic Atoms : weakly attaracted to a magnetic field as a result from unparied electrons. Diamagnetic Atoms : have no attraction to a magnetic field; all electrons are paired in the subshells. Skip 8.5 (or read it for fun) 8.6 Periodic Properties (aka periodic trends) : important to chemical bonding. When elements are arranged by atomic number on the periodic table, their physical and chemical properties vary and reoccur periodically. 1. Atomic Radius : increases down a group (more electrons!) and decreases across a period (greater effective nuclear charge..as electrons fill orbitals of a certain energy level, n, they get pulled closer to the nucleus.)
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