A marxist party took power in 1978 but soon alienated

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a Marxist party took power in 1978 but soon alienated much of the populationSoviet military intervention (1979–1989) met with little successUSSR withdrew in 1989 under international pressure; communist rule of Afghanistan collapsed
the battle that never happened: CubaFidel Castro came to power in 1959nationalization of U.S. assets provoked U.S. hostilityCastro gradually aligned himself with the USSRCuban missile crisis (October 1962)Khrushchev deployed nuclear missiles in Cubaii. the U.S. government detected the missilesiii. United States nearly invaded Cubaiv. Khrushchev and Kennedy reached a compromiseoNuclear Standoff and Third World Rivalrythe USSR succeeded in creating a nuclear weapon in 1949massive arms race: by 1989, the world had nearly 60,000 nuclear warheads, with complex delivery systems1949–1989: fear of massive nuclear destruction and even the possible extinction of humankindboth sides knew how serious their destructive power wascareful avoidance of nuclear provocation, especially after 1962avoidance of any direct military confrontation, since it might turn into a nuclear warboth the United States and the USSR courted third world countriesUnited States intervened in Iran, the Philippines, Guatemala, El Salvador, Chile, the Congo, and elsewhere because of fear of communist penetrationthe United States often supported corrupt, authoritarian regimesmany third world countries resisted being used as pawnssome countries (e.g., India) claimed “nonalignment” status in the cold warsome tried to play off the superpowers against each otherIndonesia received Soviet and Eastern European aid but destroyed the Indonesian Communist Party in 1965ii. Egypt turned toward the USSR when the United States wouldn’t help build the Aswan Dam; turned back toward the United States in 1972oThe United States: Superpower of the West, 1945–1975the United States became leader of the West against communismled to the creation of an “imperial” presidency in the United Statespower was given to defense and intelligence agencies, creating a “national security state”fear that democracy was being underminedanticommunist witch-hunts (1950s) narrowed the range of political debatestrengthened the influence of the “military-industrial complex”U.S. military effort was sustained by a flourishing economy and an increasingly middle-class societyU.S. industry hadn’t been harmed by WWII, unlike every other major industrial societyAmericans were a “people of plenty”growing pace of U.S. investment abroadAmerican popular culture also spread around the worldjazz, rock-and-roll, and rap found foreign audiencesby the 1990s, American movies took about 70 percent of the European marketaround 20,000 McDonald’s restaurants in 100 countriesoThe Communist World, 1950s–1970sNikita Khrushchev took power in the USSR in 1953; in 1956, he denounced Stalin as a criminal

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