all the above notations go back to a time anterior to the so called Warring States period, lasting from the 5th century ……... • it is during this period, that they major Chinese schools of thought arise. their thought is uniformly based on the assessment of the world as fallen • those whose duty ……… Kongzi/Confusious • venerated as the sage during the larger part of Chinese history. he sought to reform the world bought a regeneration of society, looking back tot he early Zhou rule as having realized the ideal order. He considered himself as custodian of the old teachings of the Zhou as contained in the classics: ◦ "I transmit rather than innovate; I trust in and have a love for antiquity" (LY 7.1). • own teachings are mainly preserved in the Lunyu , the reasoned sayings, or Analects , compiled by his disciples, containing dialogues, and records of what the master said and did, or what others thought about him Learning • Confucius provided the China the dominant spirit of education, Education here is another word for returning the world to its intrinsic order by self- reformation • Education should be open to all, without any class distinction. The basis for this was the conviction that people are close to each other by nature, different they become ……… • Learning is something you know, you only have to remember it; also an inquiry The Classics • the five classics and the four books contain: ◦ the book of poetry ◦ the book of documents ◦ the spring and autumn annals ◦ the collections on ritual, ◦ Analects, Mengzi, Daxue, Zhongyong • the classics were thought to have been edited and taught by the master
• knowledge of the classics lay at the basis of ………. The Noble Man • Confucius taught that the proper aim of government was the welfare of the people • This goal could only be achieved by a "noble man" who knows what is proper the be done at any given occasion • He is characterized by unselfish goodness. his citrus include courage, forgiveness, treating others well, not imposing, not being arbitrary or stubborn • Confucius taught that one should respect heaven and body its mandates; that one should always observe moderation and that one should fulfill ones duties and obligations in the world Noble Man Vs. Inferior Man • the noble man seeks within himself. the inferior man seeks within others • the noble cares about justice, the inferior man cares about his personal advantage • the noble one cares about the virtue, the inferior cares about material things • the noble one is not an instrument Money vs. Virtue • "It is alright to eat rice-gruel and drink water, and to rest ones head during the night on ones elbow. To me, however, to be rich and well-off without being just, is like floating in the clouds." The Thread • Is there a single concept that we can take as a guide for the actions of our whole life?
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