When we eat carbohydrates the carbon hydrogen bonds break down and release

When we eat carbohydrates the carbon hydrogen bonds

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When we eat carbohydrates, the carbon-hydrogen bonds break down and release energy. This is how we get energy from carbohydrates. This is a reduced compound where we use oxygen to break bonds in order to harness energy. Our bodies cannot absorb sucrose because it is too large so it must be broken down into Glucose and Fructose. ( Ex: A water molecule is added to Sucrose which splits the molecule into Fructose and Glucose (Hydrolysis). To combine Glucose and Fructose we must use dehydration synthesis (lose a water molecule) to form Sucrose.) LIPIDS - Triglyceride is another name for fat. It contains 3 fatty acids plus a glycerol molecule (bonded by ester bonds ). Triacylglycerol is a more descriptive name for triglyceride. - Hardly anything we eat that can be absorbed directly in the form that we eat them. We have to hydrolyze them into smaller components for absorption in our body. Enzymes facilitate the splitting of molecules (hydrolysis) in our small intestine with the help of water To breakdown a triglyceride into a glycerol a hydrolysis reaction occurs. To form a triglyceride a dehydration synthesis reaction occurs. - We store fats as triacylglycerol (stored energy) in cells called Adipocytes or fat cells.
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- Cholesterols which are found in the plasma membrane of a cell, Estrogen and Testosterone which are sex hormones and sterols, are hydrophobic compounds. They need an amphiapathic molecule to transport them through the bloodstream as carrier molecules. - Phospholipid is a major class of lipids and a major constituent of the plasma membrane. It has both polar (head group) and non polar (fatty acid tails) parts (amphiapathic molecule). - Glycolipid is very similar to a phospholipids, but it has a carbohydrate sticking off the surface of the cell instead of a phosphate group PROTEINS - DNA makes RNA which makes protein. - Proteins start with an amino acid. The R group is the functional group which is the only thing different on each amino acid. The amino group is NH 2 . Almost all enzymes that exist are proteins. The major role of proteins is functionality. - Amino acids can dehydrate to form a peptide bond. Plasma membrane has proteins floating around in it (sea of lipids with protein molecules floating around which gives the lipid bilayer membrane selective permeability) - When you eat protein you eat it in polymers and polypeptides. They need to be chopped up into smaller constituents. - Muscle cells have contract proteins. PROTEIN FOLDING 1. Primary level - is the sequence of amino acids that just came off the mRNA transcript. No functionality. 2. Secondary level – formation of alpha helix and beta pleated sheet . Alpha helix and beta sheet are the two primary and secondary structures in protein. Hydrogen bonds are starting to form and there is an electrostatic interaction.
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