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•He concluded that a great industrial country needed trade that relied on a merchant fleet. And that naval forces were needed to protect this fleet. •He Urged the U.S. to build a canal across Central America so that they would have better access to asian markets. “The Closed Frontier”•Greater concentration of wealth, social inequality, and eventual collapse. •To repeal this, the U.S. needed a new frontier in Asia, where it could regenerate itself. China was the ultimate prize in the global contest for trade and mastery. Manufacturers believed that China could absorb the output of America’s overproductive factories. In 1894 Japan declared war on China. After the fighting, western countries started trying to seize parts of China. America started taking watch of this. War with Spain•Controversy over CubaoSpain’s two largest colonies were Cuba and the Philippines. oCuba demanded independence, but Spain would not give it to them. oMcKinley was worried that Cuba would become independent, so he thought to either purchase it, or intervene to end the strife. He sent a warship to Havana, while Theodore Roosevelt sent a new battleship called the USS Maine. When this ship was blown up, the newspapers blamed Cuban and Spanish treachery. oRoosevelt ordered an attack on the Philippines. oMcKinley sent Spain an ultimatum demanding independence for Cuba. Congress passed a declaration of war. oMost of the American soldiers that died in the war with spain, died of disease.oRough Riders/Theodore RooseveltTheodore Roosevelt came onto the Cuban shore with the First Volunteer Cavalry (the rough riders).Roosevelt had trained and recruited the regiment and called them an “assortment of outlaws, cowboys, and Ivy League athletes. oMcKinley decided to take Guam and Puerto Rico as naval bases, and to annex Hawaii. •The Philippineso7,000 miles away and had a population of several millionoMcKinley wanted a naval base near China, however he did not take into account the fact that the Philippines had already declared independence.
oBy the time the U.S. Army arrived in 1899, Filipinos had overthrown the Spanish and rallied for their new government.oSpain recognized Cuban independence and surrendered most of their empire to America for free, but it only gave up the Philippines for 20 mil to the U.S. •Imperialists vs. Anti-ImperialistsoMany Americans opposed both the annexation of new colonies and the war with the Philippines. oThe movement included Grover Cleveland, Williams Bryan, labor unionists, Mart Twain, and industrialists. oThey advanced an array of moral, economic, and strategic arguments by saying that these countries were seeking our help and should be able to govern themselves. The islands could not be defended, and could risk an attack.