Prostate cancer screening can often be done early by testing for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and a healthcare professional performed digital rectal exam (DRE) (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017). In certain types of cancer, early screening is advised to assist with early detection and treatment. However, prostate cancer is considered slow-growing cancer, therefore, the effects of screening may become more evident within several years (American Cancer Society, 2018). PSA is a protein produced by normal and malignant cells of the prostate gland. The PSA test measures the level of PSA in a man’s blood (McCance et al., 2014). This diagnostic test requiring a blood sample that is sent to a laboratory for analysis. The PSA levels are often
6512_DB33elevated in men with prostate cancer. The PSA test was originally approved by the FDA in 1986 to monitor the progression of prostate cancer in men who had already been diagnosed with the disease (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). In 1994, the FDA approved PSA testing in conjunction with a DRE to test asymptomatic men for prostate cancer (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). Validity and Reliability PSA testing can assist in diagnosing prostate cancer early, however, having an elevated PSA (generally > 4 ng/ml) does not mean that a man has the disease. Benign prostatic
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- Summer '15
- Prostate cancer, Prostate-specific antigen