Daguerre had gone into partnership with Joseph N. Niepce, who had obtained photographic images on silver chloride sensitized paper as early as 1816 and took the world's first photograph in 1826 using a bitumen that hardened and became insoluble in white petroleum on exposure to light. The exposure took 8 hours.
386 Appendix 2 1838 Screw-driven Steamship (Transport) The first successful screw-driven steamship, the Archimedes, was constructed in Britain. The screw propeller was invented in 1836 by John Ericsson, a Swede who came to the United States in 1839 and built a screw-driven ship for the Navy. It was Ericsson who designed the ironclad Monitor, which was built in 1861. 1841 Vulcanized Rubber (Chemicals) Natural rubber was being used from the early 1900s, but had deficiencies, chief of which was that it was easily affected by temperature. When cold it was brittle and when warm it was tacky. Charles Goodyear, a hardware merchant in Philadelphia, solved this problem by heating sulfur with natural rubber. The product was not soluble in organic solvents and was relatively unaffected by temperature changes. By 1841, Goodyear was making con-tinuous sheets of uniform quality. 1844 Telegraph (Electric Communication) Samuel Morse erected a telegraph line between Baltimore and Washington in 1844. From the beginning, Morse's idea was to use a code controlled by an intermittent current. He was helped on the batteries by Professor Gale, a chemist, and on manufacture of equipment by Alfred Vail, who actually devised the Morse Code. On May 24, 1844, Morse, from the Supreme Court, sent the message "What hath God wrought" over the 40 miles of wire con-necting Washington and Baltimore. By 1850, virtually all of the United States east of the Mississippi was interconnected by the telegraph. 1845 Turret Lathe (Machine Tools) Stephen Fitch developed the vertical turret lathe. 1846 Ether (Drugs) Ether had been tried as an anesthetic for minor surgery in 1842 by Dr. Crawford W. Long, an American surgeon, but this fact was not well known. The use of ether did not spread until it was used by W. T. G Morton during a tooth extraction at Massachusetts General Hospital in September of 1846 and to anesthetize a patient of J. C. Welles in October for surgery. Morton was a former student of Horace Wells, a dentist who had one of his teeth extracted while under the influence of nitrous oxide in 1842 and later used the gas on his patients. Later in 1846, ether was used by Robert Liston, a surgeon in London. After 1846, the spread of the use of ether as an anesthetic was rapid. 1847 Rotary Press (Mechanical Printing) The first successful rotary press was that of Richard Roe, who patented his machine in 1845. It was installed by the Philadelphia Public Ledger in 1847.
Chronology of Innovation 387 The Roe press was imported into England to print Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper and was adopted by the Times in 1858. In 1866 the Times installed a rotary press, sometimes called the Walters press after John Walter III, publisher of the Times, which was the prototype of the modern press. It printed both sides of a continuous web of paper at a rate