By zeroing the load cell the Instron Load Frame could only be set to measure

By zeroing the load cell the instron load frame could

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- By zeroing the load cell, the Instron Load Frame could only be set to measure only the tensile load on each specimen inserted. - To avoid slipping of the specimens, the scroll wheel was turned in preloading the machine so that it would stay in place. - After the specimen was removed, the extensometers were adjusted to the zero values and the test moved on to the measurement of the specimen’s strain. - The data was recorded by the software in the form of a spreadsheet. - By placing each sample in the universal testing machine, the tensile test was conducted and the results were recorded in the computer. The data was later used for the calculations and for the plotting of the graphs.
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6. Results and Analysis After the experiment was over, the software had collected all of the data from the results of each specimen. This data was then used to be distributed in the form of the following graphs and tables. 6.1 Tables of Dimensional Results Aluminium Mild Steel Initial Diameter/mm Initial Diameter/mm 5.33 5.17 Initial Length/mm Initial Length/mm 129.75 130.3 Final Diameter/mm Final Diameter/mm 3.67 4.32 Final Length/mm Final Length/mm 133.77 132.31 Gauge Length/mm Gauge Length/mm 83.42 81.14 Area/mm² Area/mm² 22.31 20.99 6.2 Tables of Tensile Results Aluminium
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Date & Time Load (N) Extension (mm) Stress = F/A (MPa) Strain = ΔL/L 25/09/2019 11:45 -5 -0.02 -0.224091666 0.000154143 25/09/2019 11:45 20 0.02 0.896366663 0.000154143 25/09/2019 11:45 30 0.04 1.344549995 0.000308285 25/09/2019 11:45 40 0.06 1.792733326 0.000462428 25/09/2019 11:45 50 0.06 2.240916658 0.000462428 25/09/2019 11:45 64 0.08 2.868373322 0.00061657 25/09/2019 11:45 74 0.1 3.316556653 0.000770713 25/09/2019 11:45 84 0.1 3.764739985 0.000770713 25/09/2019 11:45 94 0.1 4.212923316 0.000770713 25/09/2019 11:45 104 0.12 4.661106648 0.000924855 25/09/2019 11:45 119 0.12 5.333381645 0.000924855 25/09/2019 11:45 134 0.12 6.005656643 0.000924855 25/09/2019 11:45 144 0.14 6.453839974 0.001078998 25/09/2019 11:45 159 0.14 7.126114971 0.001078998 25/09/2019 11:45 174 0.16 7.798389969 0.001233141 25/09/2019 11:45 188 0.16 8.425846633 0.001233141 25/09/2019 11:45 203 0.18 9.09812163 0.001387283 25/09/2019 11:45 213 0.18 9.546304962 0.001387283 25/09/2019 11:45 233 0.18 10.44267162 0.001387283 25/09/2019 11:45 238 0.2 10.66676329 0.001541426 25/09/2019 11:45 253 0.2 11.33903829 0.001541426 25/09/2019 11:45 268 0.2 12.01131329 0.001541426 25/09/2019 11:45 283 0.2 12.68358828 0.001541426 25/09/2019 11:45 293 0.2 13.13177161 0.001541426 25/09/2019 11:45 298 0.22 13.35586328 0.001695568 Mild Steel Date & Time Load (N) Extension (mm) Stress = F/A (MPa) Strain = ΔL/L 25/09/2019 11:32 0 0.04 0 0.000306984 25/09/2019 11:32 35 0.06 1.667236 0.000460476 25/09/2019 11:32 50 0.08 2.381766 0.000613968 25/09/2019 11:32 64 0.08 3.04866 0.000613968 25/09/2019 11:32 74 0.1 3.525013 0.00076746 25/09/2019 11:32 89 0.1 4.239543 0.00076746 25/09/2019 11:32 99 0.12 4.715896 0.000920952 25/09/2019 11:32 109 0.12 5.192249 0.000920952 25/09/2019 11:32 119 0.14 5.668602 0.001074444
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25/09/2019 11:32 129 0.14 6.144956 0.001074444 25/09/2019 11:32 134 0.14 6.383132 0.001074444 25/09/2019 11:32 144 0.16 6.859485 0.001227936 25/09/2019 11:32 154 0.16 7.335838 0.001227936 25/09/2019 11:32 164 0.16 7.812191 0.001227936 25/09/2019 11:32 174 0.16 8.288545 0.001227936 25/09/2019 11:32 188 0.16 8.955439 0.001227936 25/09/2019 11:32 203 0.16 9.669969 0.001227936 25/09/2019 11:32 218 0.18 10.3845 0.001381427 25/09/2019 11:32 238 0.18 11.3372 0.001381427 25/09/2019 11:32 253 0.18 12.05173 0.001381427 25/09/2019 11:32 268 0.2 12.76626 0.001534919 25/09/2019 11:32 273 0.2 13.00444 0.001534919 25/09/2019 11:32 283 0.2 13.48079 0.001534919 25/09/2019 11:32 293 0.2 13.95715 0.001534919 25/09/2019 11:32 303 0.2 14.4335 0.001534919 6.3 Graphs of stress against strain For the specimen of aluminium:- 1 7 13 19 25 31 37 43 49 55 61 67 73 79 85 91 97 103 109 115 121 127 133 139 145 151 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Aluminium Strain/x105 Stress/Mpa
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Reduction Area ( %RA ) = Change Area ( ΔA ) Initial Area ( A ) x 100 ¿ Δπr ² πr ² = ( π ( 5.33 2 ) 2 ) ( π ( 3.67 2 ) 2 ) ( π ( 5.33 2 ) 2 ) x 100 = 52.59% Percentageof Elongation ( %EL )= Change Length ( ΔL ) Initial Length ( L ) x 100 ¿ 133.77 129.75 129.75 x 100 = 3.10% Y ield Strength = Load at t he Proportional Limit Area = ( 238.97 ) x π ( 5.33 2 ) 2 π ( 5.33 2 ) 2 ¿ 238.97 MPa UltimateStrength = Maximun Load Area = ( 278.10 ) x π ( 5.33 2 ) 2 π ( 5.33 2 ) 2 ¿ 278.10 MPa For the specimen of mild steel:-
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1 57 9 17 25 33 41 49 65 73 81 89 97 105 113 121 129 137 145 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 782.98 Mild Steel
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