Esteem negative affect shame and guilt environmental

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esteem, negative affect, shame, and guiltEnvironmentaloEarly hx of pts w/ eating disorders are often complicated by medical and surgical illnesses, separations, and family deathsoWomen w/ bulimia also describe growing up in a detached family environment and exp more behavioral disturbances such as drug abuse, suicide attempts, truancy (the action
of staying away from school without good reason; absenteeism), and other emotional problemsoSexual abuse has been reported in 20% to 50% of pts w/ bulimia and anorexia (this rate is higher than in the generalpopulation)oParents who overemphasize athletics, reward slimness, or express disapproval of overwt people are placing their children at risk for dev of eating disordersoParents who cont skip meals, eat when distressed, and otherwise role model poor nutritional habits are not teaching children about the appropriate value of food as nourishmentoA vital preventive RN intervention involve edu the parents of young children regarding healthy eating behaviors (Table 24-1, p. 484, Family Education Plan: Preventing Childhood Eating Problems)SocioculturaloThe incidence of dx eating disorders, subclinical eating problems, and body image disturbances has steadily increasedoEating disorders are thought to be rare in cultures where plumpness is accepted or valuedoShifting cultural norms for women, in particular, have forced them to face conflicting messages about their bodyoThinness is highly valued, culturally rewarded, and associated w/ achievement. The contemporary US ideal women is lean, strong, graceful, and feminine. Advantage: emphasis on fitness and healthDisadvantage: the demand this norm places on women to focus on and control their bodies, often as a means for achieving desired goals. This leads to intense social pressure on women for self-discipline, rigorous exercise, dieting, and often obsessive concern about wt and body image. This results in at least 50% of US women are on a diet atany given time, w/ people in the US spending more than $5 billion on dieting productsoChildren, adolescents, and young adults who live in communities or go to schools where emphasis is placed
on wt and size are often prone to the dev of eating disordersoActivities or occupations that emphasize beauty or fitness also promote a preoccupation w/ wt and eating behaviors.Ballet dancers, models, actors, athletes, and fashion retailers have demands placed on them concerning body wt and sizeThese occupations and activities in themselves don’t cause eating disorders, but they do attract people who may measure their self-esteem, self-worth, and ability to perform by their body measurements rather than by their accomplishments and personal satisfactionBox 24-2, p. 485, Psychosocial Predisposing Factors for the Development of Eating DisordersPrecipitating StressorsHaving one or more predisposing factors puts a person at risk for an eating disorderoPeople who are predisposed are especially vulnerable to environmental pressures and stress

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