75Another study found that anxious negotiators expect lower outcomes, respond to
offers more quickly, and exit the bargaining process more quickly, leading them to obtain worse outcomes.76As you can see, emotions—especially negative ones—matter to negotiation. Even emotional unpredictability affects outcomes; researchers have found that negotiators who express positive and negative emotions in an unpredictable way extract more concessions because this behaviour makes the other party feel less in control.77As one negotiator put it, “Out of the blue, you may have to react to something you have been working on in one way, and then something entirely new is introduced, and you have to veer off and refocus.”78Gender Differences in NegotiationMen and women behave similarly in many areas of organizational behaviour, but negotiation is not one of them. It seems fairly clear that men and women negotiate differently, men and women are treated differently by negotiation partners, and these differences affect outcomes.Do men and women negotiate differently?A popular stereotype is that women are more cooperative and pleasant in negotiations than are men. Although this stereotype is controversial, it has some merit. Men tend to place a higher value on status, power, and recognition, whereas women tend to place a higher value on compassion and altruism. Moreover, women tend to value relationship outcomes more than men,and men tend to value economic outcomes more than women.79These differences affect both negotiation behaviour and negotiation outcomes. Compared with men, women tend to behave in a less assertive, less self-interested, and more accommodating manner in negotiations. As a 2012 literature review concluded, women “are more reluctant to initiate negotiations, and when they do initiate negotiations, they ask for less, are more willing toaccept [the] offer, and make more generous offers to their negotiation partners than men do.”80A 2012 study of MBA students at Carnegie Mellon University found that male MBA students took the step of negotiating their first offer 57 percent of the time, compared with 4 percent for female MBA students. The net result? A $4000 difference in starting salaries.81One comprehensive literature review suggests that the tendency for men to receive better negotiation outcomes in some situations does not cover allsituations.82Indeed, evidence suggested women and men bargained more equally in certain situations, women sometimes outperformed men, and men and women obtained more nearly equal outcomes when negotiating on behalf of someone else. In other words, everyone was better at advocating for others than theywere at advocating for themselves.Factors that increased the predictability of negotiations also tended to reduce gender differences.