Tissue hypoxemia can lead to an increased respiratory rate to compensate for lack of oxygen to the tissues along with changes to the liver, heart, and kidneys, and central nervous system. Anemias are classified by the cause of the reduction in erythrocytes. “Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common type of anemia throughout the world… in both developed and developing countries” (Huether & McCance, 2017, p 517). Iron is important to the body not only for the production of hemoglobin, but also to help your body maintain healthy cells, skin, hair, and nails (American Society of Hematology, 2018). IDA can be caused by blood loss or by inadequate intake of iron. The body recycles the iron it has, so it is important as an advance practice nurse to find out why the body does not have enough iron. Iron you eat is absorbed by the cells in the gastrointestinal tract where is it attached to a protein called transferrin. This protein then transfers the iron to the liver where it is stored as ferritin until it is needed by the body (American Society of Hematology, 2018). Only a small portion of the iron we eat is actually absorbed (American Society of Hematology, 2018). Chronic inflammation anemia or anemia of chronic disease (ACD) “is the second most common type of anemia after iron-deficiency anemia” (Agarwal & Prchal, 2009). It is caused by inflammatory cytokines and characterized by low iron in the blood but high iron in the macrophages as they phagocytose the old erythrocytes but are unable to release the iron back into the liver (Agarwal & Prchal, 2009). This type of anemia is prevalent in patients with chronic illness, cancer, autoimmune disease, and chronic kidney disease (Sun, Vaja, Babitt, & Lin, 2012). Iron-deficiency anemia is caused by behaviors such as eating low iron diet, drinking excessive amounts of milk which can block the absorption of iron, or from bleeding issues such
as heavy menstruation, surgery, peptic ulcers, GI bleeds, or trauma. It can be acute of chronic. Chronic Inflammation Anemia is caused by disease and would not be affected by behavior, age, or gender unless the underlying disease process is affected by those factors. References American Society of Hematology. (2018). Iron-Deficiency Anemia. Retrieved from Agarwal, N. & Prchal, J.T. (2009, January 1). Anemia of Chronic Disease (Anemia of Inflammation). Acta Haematologica 122 (2-3), pp 103-108. doi: 10.1159/000243794 Sun, C.C., Vaja, V, Babitt, J.L., & Lin, H.Y. (2012, April). Targeting the hepcidin–ferroportin axis to develop new treatment strategies for anemia of chronic disease and anemia of inflammation. American Journal of Hematology 87 (4), pp 392-400. doi: 10.1002/ajh.23110 Heather, Thank you for the very informative post. Anemia of chronic inflammation (ACI) is classified as a normocytic-normochromic anemia which is characterized by erythrocytes that are relatively normal in size and hemoglobin content but insufficient in number (Huether & McCance, 2017). High levels of hepcidin are responsible for ACI (2017). I chose to discuss pernicious anemia in this week’s discussion.
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- Spring '15
- Hematology, Hemoglobin, Iron deficiency anemia