Examples, Africa, Asia, Middle East; Argentina, Brazil, Turkey, South Africa, ChinaoStage 4 postindustrial, people working in service sectors and desk jobsOverwhelmingly urban settingsBirth and death rate are low, stable population growth, very low fertility rates, longevity rates are increasingly higherExamples US, UK, Europe, UAEoStage 5 death rates are extremely low, birth rates are lower than death rates, population is shrinkingExamples Russia, Japan, ItalyoIncrease = Urbanization, Industrialization, Education, Health Care, Technology, life expectanceoDecreasing, infant mortality and infant rateA population pyramid is a demographic snapshot of a society or state at any given timeoGive info about characteristics, shape gives insight on whats happening within thesociety oThe sex; population (in millions) on the x axis; y axis in 5 years age bracketsoOld brackets = people over 55-65 years of ageoBearing bracket – 15-late 40’s, bearing kids, economics, pay taxes, take care of old bracketsoBaby brackets – under 15, pulling resources from societyClassic pyramidoA rapid growth rate pyramid, baby is higher than bearing, high fertility rateoMid to late stage 2 – early stage 3oMost people are farmers, poor health care, high infant mortality, export agriculturalSlow/stable/cooloFertility rate 2.1, stable population growth rateoStage 4, fully developed, urbanized, service jobs, family size smallerIntriguing inverted/negative growth (Italy 2010)oFertility rate 1.2, negative population growth
oLate stage 4 or 5, death rates above birth, postindustrial, rich, urbanized, educationalVietnam – 2000oFertility rates decline, from 2-3 by 2025From classic to inverted pyramidPopulation momentum = India 2000 classic pyramid, 2025 2.1 replacement level; snowball going down a hill, 2050 cool column-invertIssue 1 = compounding people make compounding problemsoIssue 2 = people moveEmigration – people exitingoIssue 3 – cultural…oIssue 4 chronic disease1.Sovereign states owned and governed by their governmenta.Antarctica isn’t a stateb.US is one of the oldest sovereign states, also China and Irani.Youngest = Africa and USSRc.Identify yourself with other people: clan, tribe, culture -> they put someone in charge (sovereign ruler)i.King of the Franks; Leader of the Chinese People’s2.State: a legally defined territory that has been recognized by other states – 193 states today3.Nation: is a group of people who share a common culture that may want to have their own government – Cherokee; Zulu in Africa, Scots, Kurds, the French, the Germans4.Nation-state: people who share a common culture and rule themselves in a defined political area – Germany, France, Dutch, all of Europe; Iran, China, Japan, Koreaa.US isn’t a nation-state, India, Sudanb.South Sudan became an independent state in 2011c.You can have a nation without a state: The Basks of Northern Spain, the Kurds, Abkhazians, Palestine, Kosovod.Sovereign states never willingly give up territoryi.
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- Fall '08
- japan, The Wealth of Nations, Republic of China, People's Republic of China