Theory assumes that individuals have some realistic

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Theory assumes that individuals have some realistic perspective on how we weight cost and benefit; we sit there and calculate The decision to commit a crime involves: Preparation Target selection (figure out whether or not you want to harm a person or organization) Committing the act Escape Aftermath Getting involved in crime involves three stages: Initiation (first time you used a drug or killed a person) Habituation (whether or not you did it again, stopped, or becomes a habit) Desistance Routine Activities Cohen and Felson Crimes occur when these three converge: Motivated offender Suitable or attractive targets, exposure, and proximity Lack of Capable Guardian (if someone is there then the possibility of a crime occurring is very little or nonexistent) Usefulness and Policy Implication of theory How valuable a theory is can be evaluated based on how useful it is in guiding policies and practices Discussion Do you think deterrence and rational choice are useful in guiding criminal justice practices? Do you think certainty of punishment reduces crime rate? Do you think severity of punishment reduces crime rates? Do you think swiftness of punishment reduces crime rates? Deterrence, Rational Choice and Criminal Justice programs and policies Scared Straight The film seemed like a good way to deter juvenile delinquency and prevent juveniles from having an adult criminal careers
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Shock Incarceration or Shock Probation A short time in prison Findings: those who participated in the study committed 4 times as many offenses than those who did not Boot Camps Drills, strict discipline, military style regimen The purpose is to increase self-control and fear of incarceration. FINDINGS: Does not reduce recidivism—juveniles and adults who participated in boot camps are more likely to be re-incarcerated, re- arrested, and re-offend than others not in boot camps. Overall research findings Deterrence: Evidence on the deterrent effect of punishment is MIXED (Kubrin et al., 2009) A large body of research exists on deterrence but the findings on the deterrent effect of punishment is weak (Akers and Sellers, 2009) Rational choice: A considerable body of research Weak to moderate for support model (Akers and Sellers, 2009) Routine activities Weak support The research neglects to study the motivated offender Discussion Since the research on the deterrent effect of punishment is weak, why do you think policymakers tends to follow this perspective?
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