principle of utilitarianism : I ought do that act which will bring about the greatest happiness (pleasure) for the greatest number of persons (the community). The theory of deterrence that has developed from the work of Hobbes, Beccaria, and Bentham relies on three individual components: severity, certainty, and celerity. The more severe punishment, it is thought, the more likely that a rationally calculating human being will desist from criminal acts. Bentham suggested a procedure for estimating the moral status of any action, which he called the hedonistic or felicific calculus. Utilitarianism was revised and expanded by Bentham's student John Stuart Mill. Bentham, however, suggests there are four other types of sanction that may deter offenses: moral, sympathetic, religious, and physical(Miethe, McCorkle, Listwan, 2012, p. 100). . Mill has sometimes been interpreted as a “rule” Utilitarian, whereas Bentham and Sidgwick were “act” Utilitarians. Another objection, often posed against the hedonistic value theory held by Bentham, holds that the value of life is more than a balance of pleasure over pain.