SIMPLE BATCH MULTIPROGRAMMED BATCHED TIME SHARING PERSONAL COMPUTER PARALLEL

Simple batch multiprogrammed batched time sharing

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SIMPLE BATCH MULTIPROGRAMMED BATCHED TIME-SHARING PERSONAL-COMPUTER PARALLEL SYSTEM DISTRIBUTES SYSTEMS REAL TIME SYSTEMS A MODERN COMPUTER SYSTEM
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I/O STRUCTURE I/O INTERRUPTS (SYNCHRONOUS AND ASYNCHRONOUS) DMA STRUCTURE
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STORAGE CACHE REGISTERS MAIN MEMORY MAGNETIC DISKS MAGNETIC TAPES OPERATING SYSTEM COMPONENTS PROCESS MANAGEMENT MAIN-MEMORY MANAGEMENT FILE MANAGEMENT I/O SYSTEM MANAGEMENT SECONDARY-STORAGE MANAGEMENT NETWORKING PROTECTION SYSTEM COMAND-INTERPRETER SYSTEM SYSTEM CALLS PROVIDE THE INTERFACE BETWEEN A PROCESS AND THE OPERATING SYSTEM CATEGORIES: PROCESS CONTROL FILE MANIPULATION DEVICE MAIPULATION INFORMATION MAINTENANCE COMMUNICATIONS
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SYSTEM PROGRAMS FILE MANIPULATION AND MODIFICATION STATUS INFORMATION PROGRAMMING-LANGUAGE SUPPORT PROGRAM LOADING AND EXECUTION COMMUNICATIONS OPERATING SYSTEM STRUCTURES: MONOLITHIC STRUCTURE LAYERED STRUCTURE CLIENT/SERVER MODEL VIRTUAL MACHINE OPERATING SYSTEM SERVICES: PROGRAM EXECUTION I/O OPERATIONS FILE SYSTEM MANIPULATION HELPING USER COMMUNICATIONS ERROR DETECTION RESOURCE ALLOCATION ACCOUNTING HELPING SYSTEM PROTECTION AND SECURITY METHODOLOGY FOR OPERATING SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION DESIGN GOALS MECHANISMS AND POLICIES IMPLEMENTATIONS PROCESSES
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A PROCESS IS A PROGRAM EXECUTING A GIVEN SEQUENTIAL COMPUTATION PROCESS ELEMENTS: PROGRAM CODE PROGRAM COUNTER CONTENTS OF THE PROCESSOR ° REGISTERS STACK DATA SECTION OPERATIGN SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES OPERATIONS ON PROCESSES SCHEDULING OF PROCESSES MECHANISMS FOR: o SYNCHRONIZATION o COMMUNICATION o DEADLOCK HANDLING STATE OF A PROCESS
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Running Process loses CPU: a. It executes a system call b. An interrupt occurs c. The Process is exiting Process Control Block 1. Process Identification 2. Process State 3. CPU Scheduling Information 4. Program Counter 5. Memory Management Information (memory limits, etc.) 6. Accounting Information (amount of CPU used, etc.) 7. I/O Status Information (list of I/O devices allocated, etc.)
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Interruption Procedure 1. Save PCB in a stack 2. Load information about interruption program 3. Execute the interruption program 4. Move blocked process to ready queue 5. Select process to run (scheduler program) 6. Begin execution of the active program SWAPPING (the system very loaded)
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OPERATIONS ON PROCESSES 1. Process Creation 2. Process Deletion Scheduling 1. Long-term Scheduler 2. Short-term Scheduler 3. Medium-term Scheduler
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Long-term Scheduler Must select a new process for the CPU quite frequently Must be very fast Execute at least one every 100 milliseconds Short-term Scheduler: Execute much less frequently Control the degree of multiprogramming May be absent Medium-term Scheduler: - Swap out and swap in a process from the memory Normally, when the system is overloaded
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CONTEXT SWITCH 1. Save the state of the old process 2. Load the saved state for the new process CONCURRENT PROCESSES Independent Cooperating + Producer-Consumer Producer ° Buffer -> Consumer + Client-Server o Information Sharing o
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