1.List at least one craniodental characteristics that group Proconsulwith hominoids to the exclusionof cercopithecoids.

2.Compare the skeleton of Proconsulon the handout to the articulated skeletons of a chimpanzee and a macaque. In the table below, name one similarity and one difference between each taxon and Proconsul.

3.Using what you’ve learned about relative limb proportions and primate locomotion, what kindof locomotion does the macaque have vs. the chimpanzee in the trees? Do the limb proportions of Proconsulmore closely resemble the macaque or the chimpanzee?

6

Limb proportions

Is this what you would expect in a hominoid ancestor based on the style of arboreal locomotion in modern hominoids? Why?

Station 5: The Miocene through Pleistocene – Fossil Apes in Asia (1 pt.)During the Miocene, a dispersal of larger-bodied, thick-enameled apes from Africa into Eurasia formed the basis of a radiation thought to produce both the ancestor to modern orangutans and the largest primate to ever live: Gigantopithecus. Use the fossil material and handouts at this station to answer the following questions about members of this radiation.1.Sivapithecus(15-9 mya) is an ape fossil found in Pakistan and northwestern India that is thought to be an early relative of orangutans. Describe two characteristicsshared betweenSivapithecusand the orangutan, to the exclusionof the chimpanzeeChimpanzee: Orangutan: Sivapithecus:2.Fossils of Gigantopithecuswere first discovered in a Chinese apothecary shop, and have since been found in Vietnam and India. Little is known of Gigantopithecusbesides teeth, but primate molar size and body size are tightly correlated. Measure the length and width of the 7(in mm)

Gigantopithecustooth provided at this station (in millimeters)and follow the directions below to estimate its body size.Length of tooth: ________30_____________ mmWidth of tooth: _________10.5____________mm Google has a scientific calculator if you need one.1.Multiply length x width, then take the natural log (LN) of this product: LN(length x width)2.Multiply your answer from above x 1.5, then add 3.55: (Answer x 1.5) + 3.553.Raise the number e(~2.72) to the power of your answer from above: e^ Answer4.Divide your answer by 1,000 then multiply by 2.2 to get weight: (Answer / 1,000) x 2.25.Record your length, width, and final answer in the equation below:e ^((LN( __30_____ x ___10.5____ ) x 1.5) + 3.55) / 1,000 x 2.2 = ____88.47________ poundsLength WidthBody Weight8length (in mm)widt

Image References:●?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwj6l9jCr-HTAhXL6yYKHWJJB9AQjRwIBw&url=https%3A%2F%2Fcommons.wikimedia.org%2Fwiki%2FFile%3AProconsul_nyanzae_skeleton.jpg&psig=AFQjCNHgDNtxvlfV3KHJeDspFGywB3cG8Q&ust=1494369813073753●67px-Proconsul_africanus.JPG●9