The rushes of pleasure and reward associated with sexual behaviour and romantic

The rushes of pleasure and reward associated with

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The rushes of pleasure and reward associated with sexual behaviour and romantic passion are created by: Endorphins Dopamine Reward System Involved (activated by drugs and physical contact) o Researchers believe that the neurological origins of passionate love being in the baby’s attachments to its mother The Biology of Desire o Human sexuality is not simply a matter of “doing what comes naturally” o What is “natural” for one person or culture may not be so natural for others o Margaret Mead o Sexuality is influenced by a variety of factors Biological Psychological and Cultural o Hormones: Testosterone promotes sexual desire in both men and women (but estrogens are also important in women) However, hormones do not cause sexual behaviour in a simple, direct way Ex: more testosterone does not mean there is a high sex drive Whether men and women are different in some biologically based sex drives continues on to be debated Biological factors versus gender roles o Gender Differences in Sexuality: A common view of sexuality is that male sexuality is more biologically influenced than is women’s whereas female sexuality is more governed by circumstances, relationships, and cultural norms Is this true? Research:
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o Sexology research (Kinsey, Masters and Johnson) showed that physiologically, both sexes experience similar sexual arousal and physiological responses o Masters and Johnson “four stages of the sexual response cycle” include: Desire Arousal (excitement) Orgasm Resolution o Be aware of the apparent simplicity of stage theories o Unfortunately, there has been an impulse to treat these four stages as if they were like the cycles of a washing machine o This has led to a mistaken inference of universality o Individuals vary enormously in sexual excitement, response, and inhibition o Kinsey Kinsey Institute that studies human sexual behaviour Kinsey Scale 0 being exclusively heterosexual 3 being equally hetero and homo 6 being exclusively homosexual o Biology and Sexual Orientation: Traditional psychological explanations for homosexuality and NOT been supported These have included: Parenting (smothering mother, absent mother) Emotional Problems Same-sex play during development Childhood seduction Homosexual role models or encouragement to be gay Evidence for Biological Basis: Same-sex activity in hundreds of other species Early and strong feeling of being gay and/or identifying with the opposite gender Twin Studies (moderate heritability: 0.3 – 0.6) “Brother” Effect – prenatal hormonal events – aka “fraternal birth order effect” o More biologically brothers in the household you will be more gay Culture, Gender, and Sexual Orientation BUT biological factors do not account 100% for sexual orientation, nor for diversity in the expression of homosexuality across cultures AND it may be different for males and females
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